Subject Thesaurus

* indicates a non-preferred term, which includes a link to the preferred term

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z - #

The structure and format conventions used to construct this thesaurus follow the recommendations outlined in the Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Thesauri, Z39.19-1993 (NISO 1993). This section identifies and provides brief descriptions of the conventions used.

Punctuation

  • All punctuation is excluded, with the exception of text in scope notes.
  • Hyphens are used only in cases of necessary prefixes (e.g. anti-war, pre-marital) or where literary warrant establishes the use of a hyphen to link words together (e.g. drive-by shootings). Sources for such warrant include the Merriam-Webster Dictionary (1998) and existing subject specialized thesauri (for a listing of thesauri used see the Sources Consulted bibliography). Where disagreement occurs among these sources, the decision is based on user warrant as indicated in the subject thesauri consulted.

Singular and Plural

  • Terms are expressed in plural form if they constitute "count nouns" (i.e., names of objects or concepts that are subject to the question "how many").

    Examples:

    • political parties
    • crops
    • veterans
  • Terms are expressed in singular form if they constitute "noncount nouns" (i.e., names of materials, substances, or states of being that are subject to the question "how much").

    Examples:

    • snow
    • aggression

Compound Terms

  • Compound terms in the form of noun phrases are included if they represent a single concept and exist in common usage.

    Examples:

    • election ballots
    • child abuse
    • property taxes
  • Compound terms in the form of prepositional noun phrases are restricted to concepts that cannot be expressed in any other way.

    Examples:

    • prisoners of war
    • courtroom procedures

Abbreviations and Acronyms

  • Abbreviations and/or acronyms are selected as preferred terms if they have a well-established usage and are unambiguous.

    Examples:

    • UFO
    • AIDS
    • DNA

Proper Names and Titles

  • Organization names are included in the Subject Thesaurus as unique entities or "classes of one" (NISO 1993).
  • Titles of institutions, treaties, and legislative acts are included in their full form except in cases where an acronym is the more familiar usage.

    Examples:

    • Marshall Plan
    • NAFTA
    • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Names of persons and names of geographic places are excluded from the subject thesaurus. Two separate controlled lists have been created to accommodate these categories.

Hierarchy Notation

  • The Subject Thesaurus indicates both hierarchical and non-hierarchical relationships between terms. Hierarchical relationships are those that demonstrate genus:species, whole:part, class:subclass relationships. This is designated through the Broader Term, Narrower Term notation.

    Examples:

    • elections
    • NARROW TERM(S): congressional elections
    • congressional elections
    • BROADER TERM(S): elections
  • Non-hierarchical relationships indicate a close conceptual relationship (though not synonymous) between terms. This is always represented as reciprocal and is indicated by the related term notation.

    Examples:

    • judicial decisions
    • RELATED TERM(S): appellate courts
    • appellate courts
    • RELATED TERM(S): judicial decisions

Preferred and Non-Preferred Terms

  • Synonyms, near synonyms, alternate spellings, superseded terms, and abbreviations of less commonly used terms are controlled by designating a "preferred term" and referencing it to all relevant (semantically equivalent) "non-preferred terms" and term variants. This is indicated by the Preferred Term and Non-Preferred Term notation, where the term following Preferred Term is the preferred term (to index and search by) and the term following Non-Preferred Term indicates the non-preferred term.

    Examples:

    • primitive peoples
    • Preferred Term: indigenous peoples
    • indigenous peoples
    • Non-Preferred Term: primitive peoples

Qualifiers

  • Parenthetic qualifiers are used to disambiguate homonyms and to clarify terms whose meaning or context in time and space may cause confusion. Qualifiers become part of the term and must be included in indexing or searching.

    Examples:

    • defense (legal)
    • defense (military)
    • Bush Administration (1989-1993)
    • Bush Administration (George W. 2001- )
    • Georgia (Republic)

Scope Notes

  • Scope notes are used to provide a definition for a specialized term, to provide instruction or restriction on a term's application, and in some cases, to direct the user to other terms that might be more appropriate. Scope notes are indicated by the notation SCOPE NOTE(S).

    Examples:

    • mistrials
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): A court trial terminated without conclusion either because of prejudicial error in the proceedings or because a jury cannot agree on a verdict.
    • congressional elections (U.S. House)
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): applies only to national elections for the United States House of Representatives.
    • Soviet Union
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): Use limited to 1922-1991; dissolved 1991.

Terms

sacred texts
sales tax
SALT*
SALT treaties*
same-sex marriage
sanctions
sanitation
SARS
satellite communications
satellites
satisfaction
savings
savings and loans associations
savings and loans crisis
schizophrenia
scholarships
scholastic achievement tests*
school achievement tests*
school administration*
school age children
school attendance
school boards
school busing
school choice
school desegregation
school districts
school dropouts
school enrollments
school libraries
school personnel
school prayer
school principals
school readiness
school safety and security
school security
school superintendents
school vandalism
school violence
school vouchers*
schools
science
science education
scientific research
scientists
SCSA
sculptors
SDI*
search and seizure
search and seizure laws
search warrants
seasonal labor
SEATO*
secondary education
secret police
Secret Service
secularism
securities
securities fraud
security
security systems
sedatives
segregation
selective incapacitation
self concept
self defense
self esteem
self evaluation
self government
self medication
self rule*
senate*
senatorial elections*
senility
senior citizens*
sentence review
sentencing
sentencing guidelines
sentencing reforms
separatism
September 11 attack
serial murders
service industry
service providers
SES*
seventeenth century
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome*
sewer systems
sex*
sex crimes*
sex discrimination
sex education
sex offender notification*
sex offender profiles
sex offender registration
sex offenders
sex offenses
sex roles*
sex tourism
sex trafficking
sexism
sexual abuse
sexual assault
sexual attitudes
sexual awareness
sexual behavior
sexual exploitation
sexual harassment
sexual knowledge*
sexual orientation*
sexual preference
sexual reproduction
sexually abused children
sexually transmitted disease
shareholders
shock incarceration programs
SHOP*
shoplifting
shopping
siblings
simulation models
single fathers
single mothers
single parent families
single parents
sixteenth century
skiing
skills
skin cancer
slave appraisals
slave descendants
slave hires
slave labor
slave ownership
slave populations
slave sales
slavery
slavery compensation
slaves
sleep
sleep disorders
slums
SMA
Small Business Health Options Program
small business tax credit
small businesses
smoking
smoking cessation
SMSA*
smuggling
social activism
social adjustment
social attitudes
social behavior
social capital
social change
social classes
social conflict
social contact
social control
Social Democrats
social distance
social elites
social environment
social expenditures
social history
social identity
social indicators
social inequality
social influences
social integration
social interaction
social isolation
social issues
social justice
social life
social media
social mobility
social movements
social networks
social problems
social protest
social reform
social reintegration
social roles
social sciences
Social Security
Social Security tax
social services
social status
social stratification
social structure
social studies
social support
social values
social welfare
social work
socialism
Socialist Party
socialization
socioeconomic status
sociology
soft money
solid waste disposal*
solid wastes
solitary confinement
sons
sororities
sorrow
South East Asia Treaty Organization
Southern United States
space exploration
space programs
space research*
space sciences
space shuttle
space stations
space technology
Spanish origins*
spatial data
special elections
special education
special interest groups
special needs adoption
special needs students
special prosecutors
speech impairment
speech language pathology
spending*
spies*
spinal cord injury
sports
sports participation
spouse abuse
spouses
spying*
squatter settlements
squatters
SSI*
staff*
stalkers
stalking
standard consolidated statistical areas*
standard metropolitan areas*
standard metropolitan statistical areas*
standard of living
standardized tests
standards
Star Wars*
startup companies
startup costs
starvation*
state correctional facilities
state courts
state elections
state government
state legislative hearings
state legislators
state legislatures
State of the Union Address
state politics
state regulations
state supreme courts
states (USA)
statistical data
statistical models
statistics
status offenses
STD*
stem cell research
stepchildren
stepfamilies
stepparents
stereotypes
steroid use
stillbirths
stimulants
stock exchange*
stock market conditions
stock market crashes
stock market returns
stock markets
stock prices
stocks
stolen property
stolen property recovery
stolen vehicles
storms
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks
Strategic Defense Initiative
stress
strikes*
student athletes
student attitudes
student behavior
student evaluation
student financial aid
student government
student loans
student misconduct
student organizations
student participation
student protests
student retention
student teachers
student values
students
study habits
study skills
substance abuse
substance abuse treatment
suburbs
subversive activities
success
suicide
suicide bombings
suicide prevention
supervised liberty
supplemental security income
supportive services
Supreme Court*
Supreme Court decisions
Supreme Court justices
Supreme Court nominations
surgery
surrogate
surveillance
surveillance equipment
suspect identification
suspended sentences
symphony orchestras
symptoms
synagogues