Subject Thesaurus

* indicates a non-preferred term, which includes a link to the preferred term

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z - #

The structure and format conventions used to construct this thesaurus follow the recommendations outlined in the Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Thesauri, Z39.19-1993 (NISO 1993). This section identifies and provides brief descriptions of the conventions used.

Punctuation

  • All punctuation is excluded, with the exception of text in scope notes.
  • Hyphens are used only in cases of necessary prefixes (e.g. anti-war, pre-marital) or where literary warrant establishes the use of a hyphen to link words together (e.g. drive-by shootings). Sources for such warrant include the Merriam-Webster Dictionary (1998) and existing subject specialized thesauri (for a listing of thesauri used see the Sources Consulted bibliography). Where disagreement occurs among these sources, the decision is based on user warrant as indicated in the subject thesauri consulted.

Singular and Plural

  • Terms are expressed in plural form if they constitute "count nouns" (i.e., names of objects or concepts that are subject to the question "how many").

    Examples:

    • political parties
    • crops
    • veterans
  • Terms are expressed in singular form if they constitute "noncount nouns" (i.e., names of materials, substances, or states of being that are subject to the question "how much").

    Examples:

    • snow
    • aggression

Compound Terms

  • Compound terms in the form of noun phrases are included if they represent a single concept and exist in common usage.

    Examples:

    • election ballots
    • child abuse
    • property taxes
  • Compound terms in the form of prepositional noun phrases are restricted to concepts that cannot be expressed in any other way.

    Examples:

    • prisoners of war
    • courtroom procedures

Abbreviations and Acronyms

  • Abbreviations and/or acronyms are selected as preferred terms if they have a well-established usage and are unambiguous.

    Examples:

    • UFO
    • AIDS
    • DNA

Proper Names and Titles

  • Organization names are included in the Subject Thesaurus as unique entities or "classes of one" (NISO 1993).
  • Titles of institutions, treaties, and legislative acts are included in their full form except in cases where an acronym is the more familiar usage.

    Examples:

    • Marshall Plan
    • NAFTA
    • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Names of persons and names of geographic places are excluded from the subject thesaurus. Two separate controlled lists have been created to accommodate these categories.

Hierarchy Notation

  • The Subject Thesaurus indicates both hierarchical and non-hierarchical relationships between terms. Hierarchical relationships are those that demonstrate genus:species, whole:part, class:subclass relationships. This is designated through the Broader Term, Narrower Term notation.

    Examples:

    • elections
    • NARROW TERM(S): congressional elections
    • congressional elections
    • BROADER TERM(S): elections
  • Non-hierarchical relationships indicate a close conceptual relationship (though not synonymous) between terms. This is always represented as reciprocal and is indicated by the related term notation.

    Examples:

    • judicial decisions
    • RELATED TERM(S): appellate courts
    • appellate courts
    • RELATED TERM(S): judicial decisions

Preferred and Non-Preferred Terms

  • Synonyms, near synonyms, alternate spellings, superseded terms, and abbreviations of less commonly used terms are controlled by designating a "preferred term" and referencing it to all relevant (semantically equivalent) "non-preferred terms" and term variants. This is indicated by the Preferred Term and Non-Preferred Term notation, where the term following Preferred Term is the preferred term (to index and search by) and the term following Non-Preferred Term indicates the non-preferred term.

    Examples:

    • primitive peoples
    • Preferred Term: indigenous peoples
    • indigenous peoples
    • Non-Preferred Term: primitive peoples

Qualifiers

  • Parenthetic qualifiers are used to disambiguate homonyms and to clarify terms whose meaning or context in time and space may cause confusion. Qualifiers become part of the term and must be included in indexing or searching.

    Examples:

    • defense (legal)
    • defense (military)
    • Bush Administration (1989-1993)
    • Bush Administration (George W. 2001- )
    • Georgia (Republic)

Scope Notes

  • Scope notes are used to provide a definition for a specialized term, to provide instruction or restriction on a term's application, and in some cases, to direct the user to other terms that might be more appropriate. Scope notes are indicated by the notation SCOPE NOTE(S).

    Examples:

    • mistrials
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): A court trial terminated without conclusion either because of prejudicial error in the proceedings or because a jury cannot agree on a verdict.
    • congressional elections (U.S. House)
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): applies only to national elections for the United States House of Representatives.
    • Soviet Union
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): Use limited to 1922-1991; dissolved 1991.

Terms

Cabinet
Cabinet appointments
Cabinet nominations
caffeine
campaign contributions
campaign expenditures
campaign finance
campaign finance law
campaign finance reform
campaign finance reports
campaign funds
campaign issues
campaign literature
campaign spending*
campaign strategies
campaigns*
camping
campsites
campus crime
campus unrest
Canadian Parliament
cancer
candidates
cannabis*
capital gains
capital punishment
capitalism
car loans*
carcinogens
cardiology
cardiovascular disease
care of children*
career change
career choice
career criminals
career development
career expectations
career goals
career guidance
career history
career planning
careers
caregiver burden
caregivers
cargo hijacking*
cargo security
cargo shipments
carjacking
carpools
cars*
cartel
Carter Administration (1977-1981)
cartography*
case dismissal
case management
case processing
caseloads
cash payments
casinos
caste
casualties*
casualties of war*
catastrophes*
Catholic Church
Catholic priests
Catholicism
Catholics
causes of crime
causes of death
CCDF*
CDP*
celebrations
celebrities
cellular phones
censorship
CENSPAC*
censure
census
census county divisions
census data
Census Designated Places
census divisions
census methods
census records
census regions
Census Software Package
census tract level
censuses
central banks
Central Intelligence Agency*
certification
certiorari
charitable donations
charities
check payments
chemical dependence*
chemical industry
chemical spills
chemical warfare
chemical weapons
chemotherapy
Chernobyl accident
chewing tobacco
child abuse
child advocacy
child care
Child Care and Development Fund
child care providers
child care workers
child custody
child custody hearings
child development
child health
child neglect
child nutrition
child placing*
child pornography
child prostitution
child rearing
child support
child support payments*
child welfare
childbirth*
childcare*
childhood
childlessness
children
children, adopted*
children--care*
chlorofluorocarbons
Christian Coalition
Christian Democrats
Christianity
Christmas
chronic disabilities
chronic illnesses
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
chronic offenders*
church attendance
church buildings
church groups
church membership
church state separation
churches*
CIA
cigarettes
cigarillos
cigars
cities
citizen advocacy*
citizen arrests
citizen attitudes
citizen crime reporting
citizen grievances
citizen participation
citizen patrols
citizens
citizenship
city councils
city government*
city planning*
civic engagement
civics
civil courts
civil defense
civil disobedience
civil disorders
civil disturbances*
civil law
civil liberties*
civil protection orders*
civil rights
Civil Rights Act (1964-USA)
civil rights movement
civil service
civil society
civil strife*
civil union
civil wars
civilians
class consciousness
class identity
class size
classical music
classified information
classroom environment
cleaning
clearance rates
clemency
clergy
client characteristics
client management classification
client relations
client satisfaction
clients
climate
climate change
Clinton Administration (1993-2001)
cloning
clothing
clubs
CMC*
CMSAs*
coal
cocaine
cognition
cognitive functioning
cognitive impairment
cognitive processes
cohabit
Cold War
collective bargaining
college activities
college degrees*
college faculty
college freshmen
college graduates
college presidents
college students
college trustees
colleges
colon cancer
colonialism
colonies*
combat
combat casualties*
commerce*
commercial areas*
commercial districts
commercial theft
commodities
Common Market*
communes
communicable diseases
communication
communications systems
communism
Communist Party
communist threat
communities
community colleges
community decision making
community development
community elites
community health
community involvement
community leaders
community organizations
community participation
community policing
community power
community service programs
commuted sentences
commuting (travel)
comorbidity
companies
comparable worth
compassion
compensation
competence
competency based education
composting
comprehension
Compstat
computer aided mapping
computer crime*
computer industry
computer literacy
computer programs
computer related crimes
computer science
computer security*
computer simulation
computer software
computer use
computers
concerts
Confederacy (USA)*
Confederate Congresses (USA)
Confederate states*
Confederate States of America
confessions (law)
confirmation hearings
conflict
conflict resolution
conflicts of interest
conformity
congregations*
Congress*
Congress on Racial Equality
congressional apportionment*
congressional campaigns
congressional candidates
congressional committees
congressional districts
congressional elections
congressional elections (US House)
congressional elections (US Senate)
congressional hearings
congressional investigations
congressional reapportionment*
congressional redistricting*
congressional voting
conscientious objection
conservation
conservatism
Conservative Party
consolidated metropolitan statistical areas
constituencies
constituent relations
constitutional amendments
constitutional change
constitutional law
constitutional rights*
constitutions
construction costs
construction industry
consumer advocates
consumer affairs
consumer assets
consumer attitudes
consumer behavior
consumer expectations
consumer expenditures
consumer habits*
consumer income*
consumer loans
consumer price index
consumer protection
consumer purchases*
consumers
consumption
contagious diseases*
contamination
contempt of court
contested elections
Continental Congresses (USA)
continuing education
contraception*
Contragate*
control
controlled drugs
convicted offender incapacitation
conviction rates
conviction records
convictions (law)
cooking
COPD*
coping
copyright
CORE*
Corn Laws (UK)
Coronavirus*
coroners
corporal punishment
corporate behavior
corporate crime
corporate debt
corporate earnings
corporate influence
corporate mergers
corporate profits
corporate reorganization
corporate responsibility
corporate sentencing
corporate takeovers
corporations
correctional classification
correctional education
correctional facilities
correctional facilities (adults)
correctional facilities (juveniles)
correctional guards
correctional officers
correctional reform
correctional system
corrections
corrections management
corruption
cost benefit analysis*
cost effectiveness
cost of living
cost of living indexes
costs
Council of Europe
counseling
counseling services
countercultures
counterintelligence
counterterrorism
counties
countries*
county courts
county government*
county juvenile justice trends
coup d'etat
couples*
course content
courses
court appointed attorney*
court appointed counsel*
court cases
court costs
court of appeals*
court orders
court system
courtroom proceedings
courts
courts martial
covert operations
COVID-19
crack cocaine
Creationism
credentials
credit
credit card debt
credit card payments
credit card use
credit unions
crime
crime control
crime control policies
crime control programs
crime costs
crime impact
crime in schools
crime laboratories
crime mapping
crime patterns
crime prediction
crime prevention
crime rates
crime reduction
crime reporting
crime statistics
Crime Stoppers programs
crime trends*
crimes*
criminal courts
criminal histories
criminal investigations
criminal justice policy
criminal justice programs
criminal justice system
criminal law
criminal offenses*
criminal records*
criminality
criminality prediction
criminals*
crisis intervention
crisis management
crop income
crop loss
crop production
crop value
crops
crosscultural differences
crosscultural perceptions
Cuban Americans
Cuban Missile Crisis
Cuban Revolution
cultural attitudes
cultural conflict
cultural diversity
cultural fusion
cultural identity
cultural influences
cultural perceptions
cultural pluralism
cultural traditions
cultural values
culture change
curfew
currencies
currency devaluation
curriculum
curriculum based assessment
curriculum design
curriculum evaluation
cyber crime
cyber security