Subject Thesaurus

* indicates a non-preferred term, which includes a link to the preferred term

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z - #

The structure and format conventions used to construct this thesaurus follow the recommendations outlined in the Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Thesauri, Z39.19-1993 (NISO 1993). This section identifies and provides brief descriptions of the conventions used.

Punctuation

  • All punctuation is excluded, with the exception of text in scope notes.
  • Hyphens are used only in cases of necessary prefixes (e.g. anti-war, pre-marital) or where literary warrant establishes the use of a hyphen to link words together (e.g. drive-by shootings). Sources for such warrant include the Merriam-Webster Dictionary (1998) and existing subject specialized thesauri (for a listing of thesauri used see the Sources Consulted bibliography). Where disagreement occurs among these sources, the decision is based on user warrant as indicated in the subject thesauri consulted.

Singular and Plural

  • Terms are expressed in plural form if they constitute "count nouns" (i.e., names of objects or concepts that are subject to the question "how many").

    Examples:

    • political parties
    • crops
    • veterans
  • Terms are expressed in singular form if they constitute "noncount nouns" (i.e., names of materials, substances, or states of being that are subject to the question "how much").

    Examples:

    • snow
    • aggression

Compound Terms

  • Compound terms in the form of noun phrases are included if they represent a single concept and exist in common usage.

    Examples:

    • election ballots
    • child abuse
    • property taxes
  • Compound terms in the form of prepositional noun phrases are restricted to concepts that cannot be expressed in any other way.

    Examples:

    • prisoners of war
    • courtroom procedures

Abbreviations and Acronyms

  • Abbreviations and/or acronyms are selected as preferred terms if they have a well-established usage and are unambiguous.

    Examples:

    • UFO
    • AIDS
    • DNA

Proper Names and Titles

  • Organization names are included in the Subject Thesaurus as unique entities or "classes of one" (NISO 1993).
  • Titles of institutions, treaties, and legislative acts are included in their full form except in cases where an acronym is the more familiar usage.

    Examples:

    • Marshall Plan
    • NAFTA
    • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Names of persons and names of geographic places are excluded from the subject thesaurus. Two separate controlled lists have been created to accommodate these categories.

Hierarchy Notation

  • The Subject Thesaurus indicates both hierarchical and non-hierarchical relationships between terms. Hierarchical relationships are those that demonstrate genus:species, whole:part, class:subclass relationships. This is designated through the Broader Term, Narrower Term notation.

    Examples:

    • elections
    • NARROW TERM(S): congressional elections
    • congressional elections
    • BROADER TERM(S): elections
  • Non-hierarchical relationships indicate a close conceptual relationship (though not synonymous) between terms. This is always represented as reciprocal and is indicated by the related term notation.

    Examples:

    • judicial decisions
    • RELATED TERM(S): appellate courts
    • appellate courts
    • RELATED TERM(S): judicial decisions

Preferred and Non-Preferred Terms

  • Synonyms, near synonyms, alternate spellings, superseded terms, and abbreviations of less commonly used terms are controlled by designating a "preferred term" and referencing it to all relevant (semantically equivalent) "non-preferred terms" and term variants. This is indicated by the Preferred Term and Non-Preferred Term notation, where the term following Preferred Term is the preferred term (to index and search by) and the term following Non-Preferred Term indicates the non-preferred term.

    Examples:

    • primitive peoples
    • Preferred Term: indigenous peoples
    • indigenous peoples
    • Non-Preferred Term: primitive peoples

Qualifiers

  • Parenthetic qualifiers are used to disambiguate homonyms and to clarify terms whose meaning or context in time and space may cause confusion. Qualifiers become part of the term and must be included in indexing or searching.

    Examples:

    • defense (legal)
    • defense (military)
    • Bush Administration (1989-1993)
    • Bush Administration (George W. 2001- )
    • Georgia (Republic)

Scope Notes

  • Scope notes are used to provide a definition for a specialized term, to provide instruction or restriction on a term's application, and in some cases, to direct the user to other terms that might be more appropriate. Scope notes are indicated by the notation SCOPE NOTE(S).

    Examples:

    • mistrials
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): A court trial terminated without conclusion either because of prejudicial error in the proceedings or because a jury cannot agree on a verdict.
    • congressional elections (U.S. House)
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): applies only to national elections for the United States House of Representatives.
    • Soviet Union
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): Use limited to 1922-1991; dissolved 1991.

Terms

facilities
factories*
failure
failure to appear
fair trial-free press
families
family background
family businesses
family conflict
family counseling
family courts
family histories
family history
family leave
family life
family planning
family relations
family relationships
family services
family size
family structure
family violence
family work relationship
famine
fanaticism*
Fannie Mae*
farm families
farm workers
farmers
farming communities
farms
fascism
fashion industry
fast food industry
fatalities
fathers
fatigue
FBI
fear
fear of crime
FECA*
federal aid
federal appropriations*
federal assistance*
federal budget
federal budget deficit
federal budget surplus
Federal Bureau of Investigation*
federal correctional facilities
federal courts
federal deficit*
Federal Election Campaign Act
federal elections*
Federal Emergency Management Agency
Federal Energy Administration*
federal funds*
federal government
Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation
federal housing programs
federal income tax
Federal Information Processing Standard*
Federal National Mortgage Association
federal offenses
Federal Open Market Committee
federal prisoners
federal regulations
Federal Reserve System
federal revenue sharing
felons
felony courts
felony offenses
FEMA*
female feticide
female inmates
female offenders
female wage earners*
females
feminism
fertility
fertility rates
festivals
films
finance
financial assets
financial counseling
financial disclosure
financial industry
financial institutions
financial management
financial planning
financial policy
financial support
fines
FIPS
FIPS codes
fire departments
fire insurance
fire protection
firearms
firearms deaths
firefighters
fires
First Amendment
fiscal policy
fishing
fixed income
flat tax
floods
FOMC*
food
food aid
food costs
food industry
food poisoning
food preferences
food production
food programs
food safety
food security
food shortages
food supply
foot patrol
forced abortion
Ford Administration (1974-1977)
forecasting*
forecasting models
foreclosure
foreign affairs
foreign aid
foreign born
foreign courts
foreign elites
foreign exchange
foreign investments
foreign judicial systems
foreign languages
foreign policy
foreign relations*
foreign service
foreign students
foreign workers
foreigners
forensic medicine
forensic sciences
forfeiture
forgery*
Former Soviet republics
foundations
fraternities
fraud
Freddie Mac*
free enterprise*
free markets
free trade
freedom
freedom of choice movement*
freedom of expression
freedom of information
freedom of religion
freedom of speech
freedom of the press
freedom rides
French National Assembly
friendly fire
friendships
fringe benefits*
frustration
fuel costs
fuel emissions
fuels
full-time employment
functional literacy
funding
fundraising
funerals
furniture
future trends*