Subject Thesaurus

* indicates a non-preferred term, which includes a link to the preferred term

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z - #

The structure and format conventions used to construct this thesaurus follow the recommendations outlined in the Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Thesauri, Z39.19-1993 (NISO 1993). This section identifies and provides brief descriptions of the conventions used.

Punctuation

  • All punctuation is excluded, with the exception of text in scope notes.
  • Hyphens are used only in cases of necessary prefixes (e.g. anti-war, pre-marital) or where literary warrant establishes the use of a hyphen to link words together (e.g. drive-by shootings). Sources for such warrant include the Merriam-Webster Dictionary (1998) and existing subject specialized thesauri (for a listing of thesauri used see the Sources Consulted bibliography). Where disagreement occurs among these sources, the decision is based on user warrant as indicated in the subject thesauri consulted.

Singular and Plural

  • Terms are expressed in plural form if they constitute "count nouns" (i.e., names of objects or concepts that are subject to the question "how many").

    Examples:

    • political parties
    • crops
    • veterans
  • Terms are expressed in singular form if they constitute "noncount nouns" (i.e., names of materials, substances, or states of being that are subject to the question "how much").

    Examples:

    • snow
    • aggression

Compound Terms

  • Compound terms in the form of noun phrases are included if they represent a single concept and exist in common usage.

    Examples:

    • election ballots
    • child abuse
    • property taxes
  • Compound terms in the form of prepositional noun phrases are restricted to concepts that cannot be expressed in any other way.

    Examples:

    • prisoners of war
    • courtroom procedures

Abbreviations and Acronyms

  • Abbreviations and/or acronyms are selected as preferred terms if they have a well-established usage and are unambiguous.

    Examples:

    • UFO
    • AIDS
    • DNA

Proper Names and Titles

  • Organization names are included in the Subject Thesaurus as unique entities or "classes of one" (NISO 1993).
  • Titles of institutions, treaties, and legislative acts are included in their full form except in cases where an acronym is the more familiar usage.

    Examples:

    • Marshall Plan
    • NAFTA
    • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Names of persons and names of geographic places are excluded from the subject thesaurus. Two separate controlled lists have been created to accommodate these categories.

Hierarchy Notation

  • The Subject Thesaurus indicates both hierarchical and non-hierarchical relationships between terms. Hierarchical relationships are those that demonstrate genus:species, whole:part, class:subclass relationships. This is designated through the Broader Term, Narrower Term notation.

    Examples:

    • elections
    • NARROW TERM(S): congressional elections
    • congressional elections
    • BROADER TERM(S): elections
  • Non-hierarchical relationships indicate a close conceptual relationship (though not synonymous) between terms. This is always represented as reciprocal and is indicated by the related term notation.

    Examples:

    • judicial decisions
    • RELATED TERM(S): appellate courts
    • appellate courts
    • RELATED TERM(S): judicial decisions

Preferred and Non-Preferred Terms

  • Synonyms, near synonyms, alternate spellings, superseded terms, and abbreviations of less commonly used terms are controlled by designating a "preferred term" and referencing it to all relevant (semantically equivalent) "non-preferred terms" and term variants. This is indicated by the Preferred Term and Non-Preferred Term notation, where the term following Preferred Term is the preferred term (to index and search by) and the term following Non-Preferred Term indicates the non-preferred term.

    Examples:

    • primitive peoples
    • Preferred Term: indigenous peoples
    • indigenous peoples
    • Non-Preferred Term: primitive peoples

Qualifiers

  • Parenthetic qualifiers are used to disambiguate homonyms and to clarify terms whose meaning or context in time and space may cause confusion. Qualifiers become part of the term and must be included in indexing or searching.

    Examples:

    • defense (legal)
    • defense (military)
    • Bush Administration (1989-1993)
    • Bush Administration (George W. 2001- )
    • Georgia (Republic)

Scope Notes

  • Scope notes are used to provide a definition for a specialized term, to provide instruction or restriction on a term's application, and in some cases, to direct the user to other terms that might be more appropriate. Scope notes are indicated by the notation SCOPE NOTE(S).

    Examples:

    • mistrials
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): A court trial terminated without conclusion either because of prejudicial error in the proceedings or because a jury cannot agree on a verdict.
    • congressional elections (U.S. House)
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): applies only to national elections for the United States House of Representatives.
    • Soviet Union
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): Use limited to 1922-1991; dissolved 1991.

Terms

race
race relations
racial attitudes
racial discrimination
racial integration
racial segregation
racial tensions
racism
radiation
radicalism
radio communications
radioactive materials
radioactive waste disposal
radioactive wastes
radios
railroads
rape
rape statistics
rapists
reactions to crime
reading
reading ability
reading comprehension
reading habits
reading programs
reading skills
Reagan Administration (1981-1989)
Reaganomics
real estate
recession
recidivism
recidivism prediction
recidivism rates
recidivists
Reconstruction
record linkage
records
records management
recount*
recreation
recreation equipment
recreation expenses
recreational reading
redistricting
reduced sentences
reelection
reentry*
referendum
refinancing
reform
Reform Party
refugees
refuse disposal*
registered voters*
regulation
regulatory agencies
regulatory processes
rehabilitation
rehabilitation programs
relationship quality
relatives
religion
religious affiliation
religious attitudes
religious behavior
religious beliefs
religious congregations
religious conversion
religious denominations
religious doctrines
religious education
religious fundamentalism
religious holidays*
religious knowledge
religious leaders
religious movements
religious organizations
religious orthodoxy
religious persecution
religious reform
religious right
religious schools
relocation
remarriage
remedial education
renal disease
renewable energy
renewable resources
rental housing
repeat offenders*
representative government*
repression
reprieve
reproduction*
reproductive history
Republican Convention*
Republican National Convention
Republican Party (USA)
research
research institutes
research models
residential programs
residential segregation
residents
resignation from office
respiratory diseases
respite care
responsibility
restaurants
restitution centers
restitution programs
restorative justice
restraining orders
retail*
retail industry
retail trade
retirees
retirement
retirement adjustment
retirement communities
retirement income
retirement planning
retirement plans
revenue
revenue sharing
revolutions
right handed*
right to die
right to life movement*
right to privacy
riot control
riots
risk
risk assessment
risk factors
risk management
robbery
roll call data
roll call voting records
Roosevelt Administration (1933-1945)
runaway slaves
runoff elections
rural areas
rural crime
rural development
rural migration
rural nonfarm families
rural population
Russian Mir Space Station