Subject Thesaurus

* indicates a non-preferred term, which includes a link to the preferred term

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z - #

The structure and format conventions used to construct this thesaurus follow the recommendations outlined in the Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Thesauri, Z39.19-1993 (NISO 1993). This section identifies and provides brief descriptions of the conventions used.

Punctuation

  • All punctuation is excluded, with the exception of text in scope notes.
  • Hyphens are used only in cases of necessary prefixes (e.g. anti-war, pre-marital) or where literary warrant establishes the use of a hyphen to link words together (e.g. drive-by shootings). Sources for such warrant include the Merriam-Webster Dictionary (1998) and existing subject specialized thesauri (for a listing of thesauri used see the Sources Consulted bibliography). Where disagreement occurs among these sources, the decision is based on user warrant as indicated in the subject thesauri consulted.

Singular and Plural

  • Terms are expressed in plural form if they constitute "count nouns" (i.e., names of objects or concepts that are subject to the question "how many").

    Examples:

    • political parties
    • crops
    • veterans
  • Terms are expressed in singular form if they constitute "noncount nouns" (i.e., names of materials, substances, or states of being that are subject to the question "how much").

    Examples:

    • snow
    • aggression

Compound Terms

  • Compound terms in the form of noun phrases are included if they represent a single concept and exist in common usage.

    Examples:

    • election ballots
    • child abuse
    • property taxes
  • Compound terms in the form of prepositional noun phrases are restricted to concepts that cannot be expressed in any other way.

    Examples:

    • prisoners of war
    • courtroom procedures

Abbreviations and Acronyms

  • Abbreviations and/or acronyms are selected as preferred terms if they have a well-established usage and are unambiguous.

    Examples:

    • UFO
    • AIDS
    • DNA

Proper Names and Titles

  • Organization names are included in the Subject Thesaurus as unique entities or "classes of one" (NISO 1993).
  • Titles of institutions, treaties, and legislative acts are included in their full form except in cases where an acronym is the more familiar usage.

    Examples:

    • Marshall Plan
    • NAFTA
    • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Names of persons and names of geographic places are excluded from the subject thesaurus. Two separate controlled lists have been created to accommodate these categories.

Hierarchy Notation

  • The Subject Thesaurus indicates both hierarchical and non-hierarchical relationships between terms. Hierarchical relationships are those that demonstrate genus:species, whole:part, class:subclass relationships. This is designated through the Broader Term, Narrower Term notation.

    Examples:

    • elections
    • NARROW TERM(S): congressional elections
    • congressional elections
    • BROADER TERM(S): elections
  • Non-hierarchical relationships indicate a close conceptual relationship (though not synonymous) between terms. This is always represented as reciprocal and is indicated by the related term notation.

    Examples:

    • judicial decisions
    • RELATED TERM(S): appellate courts
    • appellate courts
    • RELATED TERM(S): judicial decisions

Preferred and Non-Preferred Terms

  • Synonyms, near synonyms, alternate spellings, superseded terms, and abbreviations of less commonly used terms are controlled by designating a "preferred term" and referencing it to all relevant (semantically equivalent) "non-preferred terms" and term variants. This is indicated by the Preferred Term and Non-Preferred Term notation, where the term following Preferred Term is the preferred term (to index and search by) and the term following Non-Preferred Term indicates the non-preferred term.

    Examples:

    • primitive peoples
    • Preferred Term: indigenous peoples
    • indigenous peoples
    • Non-Preferred Term: primitive peoples

Qualifiers

  • Parenthetic qualifiers are used to disambiguate homonyms and to clarify terms whose meaning or context in time and space may cause confusion. Qualifiers become part of the term and must be included in indexing or searching.

    Examples:

    • defense (legal)
    • defense (military)
    • Bush Administration (1989-1993)
    • Bush Administration (George W. 2001- )
    • Georgia (Republic)

Scope Notes

  • Scope notes are used to provide a definition for a specialized term, to provide instruction or restriction on a term's application, and in some cases, to direct the user to other terms that might be more appropriate. Scope notes are indicated by the notation SCOPE NOTE(S).

    Examples:

    • mistrials
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): A court trial terminated without conclusion either because of prejudicial error in the proceedings or because a jury cannot agree on a verdict.
    • congressional elections (U.S. House)
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): applies only to national elections for the United States House of Representatives.
    • Soviet Union
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): Use limited to 1922-1991; dissolved 1991.

Terms

abduction*
ability
Abolition movement
abortifacients
abortion
abortion clinics
abortion rights movement*
absent voting
absent without leave*
absentee ballots
absentee voters
abuse
abuse allegations
abused children
ACA*
academic ability
academic achievement
academic degrees
academic disciplines
academic freedom
academic guidance counseling
academic libraries
Academic Progress Rate
academic standards
academic tenure
access to arts
access to care*
access to information
accessibility (for disabled)
accident prevention*
accidents
accidents--prevention
accreditation (institutions)
acculturation
achievement
achievement tests
ACLU*
Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome*
Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome*
Acquired immunological deficiency syndrome*
acquittals
acquittals (criminal procedure)*
active duty
activism
activities of daily living
actors
acute myocardial infarction*
ADAM*
ADAM/DUF Program
adaptation
addiction
ADEA*
adjustment
ADL*
administration
administrative costs
administrative divisions
administrative elites
administrative records*
administrators
admissions policies
adolescents
adopted children
adopted infants*
adoptees
adopting parents*
adoption
adoptive parents
adult care services
adult children
adult education
adult literacy
adult offenders
adult reading programs
adultery
adults
advertising
advocacy
aerospace industry
Affirmative Action
affluence
Affordable Care Act
Afghanistan War
African Americans
African studies
Afro-Americans*
after school programs
aftercare
age
age discrimination
Age Discrimination in Employment Act (1967-USA)
age groups
aged*
ageism*
Agency for International Development
aggravated assault
aggression
aging
aging population
agrarian reform
agrarian workers*
agribusiness
agricultural census
agricultural development
agricultural land
agricultural markets
agricultural organizations
agricultural policy
agricultural production
agricultural productivity
agricultural services
agricultural workers
agricultural zones
agriculture
AID*
AIDS (disease)
air bases
air pollution
air transportation
air travel
aircraft
aircraft hijackings
aircraft security
airport security
airports
al Qaeda
alarm systems
Alaskan Natives
alcohol
alcohol abuse
alcohol consumption
alcoholism
alienation
aliens*
alimony
allergies
Alliance for Progress
alliances
alternative energy
alternative medicine
alternatives to institutionalization
altruism
Alzheimers disease
ambition
ambivalence
ambulatory care
American Bar Association
American Bar Foundation
American Civil Liberties Union
American Civil War
American Colonies
American Council for the Arts
American Indians*
American Jews*
American Revolution
Americans for Democratic Action
Americans with Disabilities Act (1990)
Amerindians*
ammunition
amnesty
amphetamines
ancestry*
anger
animal rights advocates
anomie
anorexia nervosa
Antebellum South (USA)
anthrax
anthropology
anti-abortion movement*
Anti-Corn League (UK)
anti-nuclear movements
anti-Semitism
anti-stalking laws
anti-terrorist laws
anti-war movements
antibiotics
antidepressants
antitrust offenses
anxiety
Apartheid
apartments*
apathy
APEC*
appeal procedures
appeals court*
appellate courts
apprenticeships
approval ratings*
APR*
aptitude
Arab Americans
Arab Israeli conflict
Arab Israeli relations
Arab League
Arab Spring
arbitration
Area Agencies on Aging
area studies
armaments
armed conflict
armed forces
armed robbery
armed services*
armored vehicles
armored vests*
arms control
arms control agreements
arms control negotiations
arms embargo
arms exports
arms imports
arms race
arms sales
arms smuggling
arms trade
arms transfers
army posts
arraignment
arrest procedures
arrest rates
arrest records
arrest warrants
Arrestee Drug Abuse Monitoring program*
arrests
arrondissements
arson
art fairs
art galleries
art institutions
art museums*
arthritis
artist employment
artist unions
artists
arts
arts attendance
arts audiences
arts education
arts facilities
arts funding
arts organizations
arts participation
arts programs
asbestos
Asia Pacific Economic Cooperation
Asian Americans
aspirations
assassination attempts
assassinations
assassins
assault
assault and battery
assault weapons
assaults on police
asset forfeiture
assimilation (sociology)
assisted living
assisted living facilities
assisted suicide
assistive devices
associate degrees
associations
asthma
astronauts
asylum seekers*
athletes
attitudes
attitudes toward aging
attitudes toward death
attorneys
authoritarianism
authority
authors
auto theft
auto workers
automobile accidents*
automobile expenses
automobile industry
automobile insurance
automobile loans
automobile ownership
automobile production
automobile sales
automobile theft*
automobile use
automobiles
autopsy