Subject Thesaurus

* indicates a non-preferred term, which includes a link to the preferred term

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z - #

The structure and format conventions used to construct this thesaurus follow the recommendations outlined in the Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Thesauri, Z39.19-1993 (NISO 1993). This section identifies and provides brief descriptions of the conventions used.

Punctuation

  • All punctuation is excluded, with the exception of text in scope notes.
  • Hyphens are used only in cases of necessary prefixes (e.g. anti-war, pre-marital) or where literary warrant establishes the use of a hyphen to link words together (e.g. drive-by shootings). Sources for such warrant include the Merriam-Webster Dictionary (1998) and existing subject specialized thesauri (for a listing of thesauri used see the Sources Consulted bibliography). Where disagreement occurs among these sources, the decision is based on user warrant as indicated in the subject thesauri consulted.

Singular and Plural

  • Terms are expressed in plural form if they constitute "count nouns" (i.e., names of objects or concepts that are subject to the question "how many").

    Examples:

    • political parties
    • crops
    • veterans
  • Terms are expressed in singular form if they constitute "noncount nouns" (i.e., names of materials, substances, or states of being that are subject to the question "how much").

    Examples:

    • snow
    • aggression

Compound Terms

  • Compound terms in the form of noun phrases are included if they represent a single concept and exist in common usage.

    Examples:

    • election ballots
    • child abuse
    • property taxes
  • Compound terms in the form of prepositional noun phrases are restricted to concepts that cannot be expressed in any other way.

    Examples:

    • prisoners of war
    • courtroom procedures

Abbreviations and Acronyms

  • Abbreviations and/or acronyms are selected as preferred terms if they have a well-established usage and are unambiguous.

    Examples:

    • UFO
    • AIDS
    • DNA

Proper Names and Titles

  • Organization names are included in the Subject Thesaurus as unique entities or "classes of one" (NISO 1993).
  • Titles of institutions, treaties, and legislative acts are included in their full form except in cases where an acronym is the more familiar usage.

    Examples:

    • Marshall Plan
    • NAFTA
    • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Names of persons and names of geographic places are excluded from the subject thesaurus. Two separate controlled lists have been created to accommodate these categories.

Hierarchy Notation

  • The Subject Thesaurus indicates both hierarchical and non-hierarchical relationships between terms. Hierarchical relationships are those that demonstrate genus:species, whole:part, class:subclass relationships. This is designated through the Broader Term, Narrower Term notation.

    Examples:

    • elections
    • NARROW TERM(S): congressional elections
    • congressional elections
    • BROADER TERM(S): elections
  • Non-hierarchical relationships indicate a close conceptual relationship (though not synonymous) between terms. This is always represented as reciprocal and is indicated by the related term notation.

    Examples:

    • judicial decisions
    • RELATED TERM(S): appellate courts
    • appellate courts
    • RELATED TERM(S): judicial decisions

Preferred and Non-Preferred Terms

  • Synonyms, near synonyms, alternate spellings, superseded terms, and abbreviations of less commonly used terms are controlled by designating a "preferred term" and referencing it to all relevant (semantically equivalent) "non-preferred terms" and term variants. This is indicated by the Preferred Term and Non-Preferred Term notation, where the term following Preferred Term is the preferred term (to index and search by) and the term following Non-Preferred Term indicates the non-preferred term.

    Examples:

    • primitive peoples
    • Preferred Term: indigenous peoples
    • indigenous peoples
    • Non-Preferred Term: primitive peoples

Qualifiers

  • Parenthetic qualifiers are used to disambiguate homonyms and to clarify terms whose meaning or context in time and space may cause confusion. Qualifiers become part of the term and must be included in indexing or searching.

    Examples:

    • defense (legal)
    • defense (military)
    • Bush Administration (1989-1993)
    • Bush Administration (George W. 2001- )
    • Georgia (Republic)

Scope Notes

  • Scope notes are used to provide a definition for a specialized term, to provide instruction or restriction on a term's application, and in some cases, to direct the user to other terms that might be more appropriate. Scope notes are indicated by the notation SCOPE NOTE(S).

    Examples:

    • mistrials
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): A court trial terminated without conclusion either because of prejudicial error in the proceedings or because a jury cannot agree on a verdict.
    • congressional elections (U.S. House)
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): applies only to national elections for the United States House of Representatives.
    • Soviet Union
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): Use limited to 1922-1991; dissolved 1991.

Terms

e-cigarettes
E-commerce*
E-smoking*
early childhood education
Early Head Start
early life conditions
early release programs
early retirement
earned degrees
earthquakes
eating disorders
eating habits
Ebola
econometrics
economic activity
economic aid
economic behavior
economic change
economic conditions
economic crises
economic depression*
economic development
economic expansion
economic forecasting
economic growth
economic growth rate
economic history
economic indicators
economic integration
economic issues
economic measurement*
economic models
economic planning
economic policy
economic recovery
economic reform
economic sanctions
economic sectors
economic systems
economic trends
economics
education
education costs
education expenditures
education reform
educational administration
educational administrators
educational assessment
educational background
educational change
educational elites
educational environment
educational evaluation*
educational facilities
educational needs
educational objectives
educational opportunities
educational planning
educational policy
educational populations
educational programs
educational system
educational television
educational testing
educational trends
educational vouchers
educationally disadvantaged
educators
EEC*
EEO*
EFTA*
eighteenth century
Eisenhower Administration (1953-1961)
elder abuse
eldercare
elderly*
elected officials*
election campaigns*
election districts
election forecasting
election fraud
election law
election precincts
election returns
elections
elective offices
electoral behavior*
Electoral College
electoral issues
electoral systems
electric power
electric utilities
electricity*
electromagnetic radiation
electronic banking
Electronic cigarette smoking*
electronic commerce
electronic mail systems
electronic monitoring
electronic payments
electronic surveillance
electronics
elementary education
elementary school students
elementary schools
eligibility
elites
email*
embassies
embezzlement
emergencies
emergency departments
emergency preparedness
emergency services
emigrants
emigration
emissions standards
emotional abuse
emotional attachments
emotional development
emotional disorders
emotional disturbances
emotional problems
emotional states
emotional support
emotions*
emphysema
employee assistance programs
employee benefits
employee counseling
employees*
employers
employment
employment discrimination
employment potential
employment practices
employment projections
employment qualifications
employment services
EMU*
endangered species
energy
energy assistance
energy conservation
energy consumption
energy crises
energy drinks
energy industry
energy policy
energy production
energy shortages
energy supplies
energy use*
engineering industry
English as a Second Language
enlistment (military)
enrollment projections
entertainment
entertainment industry
entity resolution
entrepreneurs
environment
environmental attitudes
environmental cleanup
environmental degradation
environmental education
environmental hazards
environmental impact
environmental laws
environmental monitoring
environmental movements
environmental planning
environmental policy
environmental protection
environmental regulations
environmentalists
epidemic
epidemiology
Equal Employment Opportunity
Equal Rights Amendment
ESCB*
ESL*
espionage
estate planning
estimated taxes
ethics
ethnic discrimination
ethnic groups
ethnic identity
ethnic relations
ethnic tensions
ethnicity
ethnocentrism
EU*
euro
European Central Bank
European Community*
European Court of Justice
European Economic and Monetary Union
European Economic Community
European Free Trade Association
European Parliament
European Space Agency
European System of Central Banks*
European unification
European Union
European Union single market
Eurosystem
euthanasia
evacuations and rescues
evacuees
evaluation
everyday life
eviction
evidence
ex-offender employment
ex-offenders
ex-slaves
exchange rates
executions
executive orders
executive power
executive privilege
exercise
exit polls
expectations
expenditures
expenses*
experience
expert witnesses
exploitation
explosives
exports
extended families
externalizing behaviors
extortion
extra-marital sex
extradition
extremism
eyesight
eyewitness memory
eyewitnesses*