Subject Thesaurus

* indicates a non-preferred term, which includes a link to the preferred term

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z - #

The structure and format conventions used to construct this thesaurus follow the recommendations outlined in the Guidelines for the Construction, Format, and Management of Monolingual Thesauri, Z39.19-1993 (NISO 1993). This section identifies and provides brief descriptions of the conventions used.

Punctuation

  • All punctuation is excluded, with the exception of text in scope notes.
  • Hyphens are used only in cases of necessary prefixes (e.g. anti-war, pre-marital) or where literary warrant establishes the use of a hyphen to link words together (e.g. drive-by shootings). Sources for such warrant include the Merriam-Webster Dictionary (1998) and existing subject specialized thesauri (for a listing of thesauri used see the Sources Consulted bibliography). Where disagreement occurs among these sources, the decision is based on user warrant as indicated in the subject thesauri consulted.

Singular and Plural

  • Terms are expressed in plural form if they constitute "count nouns" (i.e., names of objects or concepts that are subject to the question "how many").

    Examples:

    • political parties
    • crops
    • veterans
  • Terms are expressed in singular form if they constitute "noncount nouns" (i.e., names of materials, substances, or states of being that are subject to the question "how much").

    Examples:

    • snow
    • aggression

Compound Terms

  • Compound terms in the form of noun phrases are included if they represent a single concept and exist in common usage.

    Examples:

    • election ballots
    • child abuse
    • property taxes
  • Compound terms in the form of prepositional noun phrases are restricted to concepts that cannot be expressed in any other way.

    Examples:

    • prisoners of war
    • courtroom procedures

Abbreviations and Acronyms

  • Abbreviations and/or acronyms are selected as preferred terms if they have a well-established usage and are unambiguous.

    Examples:

    • UFO
    • AIDS
    • DNA

Proper Names and Titles

  • Organization names are included in the Subject Thesaurus as unique entities or "classes of one" (NISO 1993).
  • Titles of institutions, treaties, and legislative acts are included in their full form except in cases where an acronym is the more familiar usage.

    Examples:

    • Marshall Plan
    • NAFTA
    • Civil Rights Act of 1964
  • Names of persons and names of geographic places are excluded from the subject thesaurus. Two separate controlled lists have been created to accommodate these categories.

Hierarchy Notation

  • The Subject Thesaurus indicates both hierarchical and non-hierarchical relationships between terms. Hierarchical relationships are those that demonstrate genus:species, whole:part, class:subclass relationships. This is designated through the Broader Term, Narrower Term notation.

    Examples:

    • elections
    • NARROW TERM(S): congressional elections
    • congressional elections
    • BROADER TERM(S): elections
  • Non-hierarchical relationships indicate a close conceptual relationship (though not synonymous) between terms. This is always represented as reciprocal and is indicated by the related term notation.

    Examples:

    • judicial decisions
    • RELATED TERM(S): appellate courts
    • appellate courts
    • RELATED TERM(S): judicial decisions

Preferred and Non-Preferred Terms

  • Synonyms, near synonyms, alternate spellings, superseded terms, and abbreviations of less commonly used terms are controlled by designating a "preferred term" and referencing it to all relevant (semantically equivalent) "non-preferred terms" and term variants. This is indicated by the Preferred Term and Non-Preferred Term notation, where the term following Preferred Term is the preferred term (to index and search by) and the term following Non-Preferred Term indicates the non-preferred term.

    Examples:

    • primitive peoples
    • Preferred Term: indigenous peoples
    • indigenous peoples
    • Non-Preferred Term: primitive peoples

Qualifiers

  • Parenthetic qualifiers are used to disambiguate homonyms and to clarify terms whose meaning or context in time and space may cause confusion. Qualifiers become part of the term and must be included in indexing or searching.

    Examples:

    • defense (legal)
    • defense (military)
    • Bush Administration (1989-1993)
    • Bush Administration (George W. 2001- )
    • Georgia (Republic)

Scope Notes

  • Scope notes are used to provide a definition for a specialized term, to provide instruction or restriction on a term's application, and in some cases, to direct the user to other terms that might be more appropriate. Scope notes are indicated by the notation SCOPE NOTE(S).

    Examples:

    • mistrials
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): A court trial terminated without conclusion either because of prejudicial error in the proceedings or because a jury cannot agree on a verdict.
    • congressional elections (U.S. House)
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): applies only to national elections for the United States House of Representatives.
    • Soviet Union
    • SCOPE NOTE(S): Use limited to 1922-1991; dissolved 1991.

Terms

pacifism
PACS*
pain
pain management
painters
Palestine Liberation Organization
Palestinian Authority
Palestinian refugees
pandemic
paramedics
pardons
parent child relationship
parental attitudes
parental influence
parental kidnapping
parental leave*
parental rights
parenting skills
parents
parks
parliamentary elections
parliamentary governments
parole
parole boards
parole hearings
parole officers
parole services
parole violation
parolees
part-time employment
participation
party change
party delegates
party I.D.*
party identification
party leaders
party loyalty*
party membership
party nominations
paternity leave
patient care
patient education
patients
patients rights
Patriot Act
patriotism
payment methods
payments
peace
peace keeping forces
peace keeping missions
peace movements
peace negotiations
Pearl Harbor attack
pediatrics
peer groups
peer influence
peer pressure*
pension contributions
pension eligibility
pension plans
pensions
perception of crime*
perceptions
performance
performance based assessment
performing arts
perjury
Permanent Court of International Justice*
Persian Gulf War
personal adjustment
personal debt
personal exemptions
personal finances
personal income*
personal savings*
personal security
personal wealth
personality
personality assessment
personality disorders
personnel
personnel evaluation
personnel management
personnel policy
personnel records
persuasion
peso
pessimism
petroleum
petroleum industry
petty theft
philanthropy
philosophy
physical appearance
physical assault*
physical characteristics
physical condition
physical disabilities
physical fitness
physical limitations
physical therapy
physician availability
physician choice
physician patient relationship
physician practice
physicians
pickpockets*
place of birth
place of residence
Planned Parenthood
planning
plant closings
plant location
plea bargains*
plea negotiations
pleas
PLO*
PMSAs*
poisoning
poisons
police
police brutality
police cadets
police citizen interactions
police community relations
police corruption
police deaths
police departments
police effectiveness
police equipment
police harassment
police intervention
police investigations*
police misconduct
police officers
police patrol
police performance
police protection
police records
police recruits
police referral
police reports
police response
police safety
police social services
police state
police training
police use of deadly force
police use of force
police weapons
policies and procedures
policy
policy analysis
policy making
polio
political action
political action committees
political activism
political advertising
political affiliation
political apathy
political appointments
political attitudes
political awareness
political behavior
political campaigns
political change
political conventions
political corruption
political crimes
political debate
political economy
political efficacy
political elites
political ethics
political expectations
political expenditures
political extremism*
political history
political ideologies
political influence
political influences
political interest
political issues
political knowledge*
political leaders
political movements
political office*
political opposition
political organizations
political participation
political parties
political partisanship
political perceptions
political persecution
political philosophy
political power
political protests
political reform
political representation
political science
political socialization
political sociology
political speeches
political strikes
political systems
political violence
politicians
politics
pollutants
pollution
pollution control
population
population characteristics
population decline*
population decrease
population density
population distribution
population dynamics
population estimates
population growth
population growth rate
population indicators*
population migration
population planning
population policy
population projections
population size
population trends
populations
pornography
post-Cold War period
post-hospitalization care
post-traumatic stress disorder
post-war measures
post-World War II period
Postcommunist societies
postdoctoral education
postrelease programs
postsecondary education
poverty
poverty programs
POW*
power
power of attorney
power plants
power structures
powerlessness
prayer
prayer in schools*
prediction
prefectures
preferences
pregnancy
pregnancy history*
pregnancy--complications
prejudice
premarital sex
premature births
prenatal care
prerelease programs
preschool children
preschool education*
prescription drugs
presidency
presidential administrations
presidential campaigns
presidential candidates
presidential debates
presidential elections
presidential pardons
presidential performance
presidential powers
presidents
prestige
pretrial detention
pretrial hearings
pretrial intervention
pretrial procedures
pretrial publicity
pretrial release
pretrial settlement
preventive medicine
price changes*
price controls
price fluctuations
price indexes
price trends
prices
priests
primaries
primary care
primary education*
primary elections*
primary metropolitan statistical areas
primitive peoples*
prior records*
prison adjustment
prison administration
prison conditions
prison construction
prison guards*
prison inmates
prison overcrowding
prison security
prison violence
prisoner reentry
prisoners of war
prisoners rights
prisons*
privacy
private health insurance
private ownership
private schools
private sector
privatization
pro-choice movement
pro-life movement
probable cause
probate
probation
probation conditions
probation hearings
probation officers
probation services
probationers
problem drinking*
procedural justice
process evaluation
product information
product labelling*
product safety
production costs
production levels
productivity
products
professional associations
professional development
professional ethics
professional sports
professionalism
professors*
proficiency
profits
program evaluation
programs
Prohibition Era
projects*
propaganda
property
property crime statistics
property crimes
property insurance
property repairs
property taxes
property values
Proposition 13 (California)
prosecuting attorneys
prosecution
prosecutorial immunity
prosecutors*
prosperity
prostate cancer
prostitution
protection orders*
protectionism
protective custody
protective equipment
protective shields
protective vests*
protest*
protest demonstrations
Protestantism
Protestants
provinces
provincial elections
provincial government
provincial politics
psychiatric services
psychiatrists
psychiatry
psychological effects
psychological evaluation
psychological wellbeing
psychologically abused children
psychosocial assessment
puberty
public administration
public approval
public assistance*
public assistance programs
public confidence
public debt*
public defenders
public figures
public good*
public health
public housing
public image
public information
public interest
public interest groups
public libraries
public officials
public opinion
public policy
public relations
public relations programs
public safety
public schools
public sector
public service advertising
public transportation
public utilities
public utilities commissions
publicity
pulmonary disease*
punishment
purchasing
purse snatching*