Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement, 1997 [United States] (ICPSR 4673)
Version Date: Aug 10, 2016 View help for published
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Summary View help for Summary
The Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP) was administered for the first time in 1997 by the United States Bureau of the Census, for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). CJRP replaced the Census of Public and Private Juvenile Detention, Correctional, and Shelter Facilities, also known as the Children in Custody (CIC) census, which had been conducted since the early 1970s. The CJRP differs fundamentally from CIC in that the CIC collected aggregate data on juveniles held in each facility (e.g., number of juveniles in the facility) and the CJRP, which is conducted biennially, collects an individual record on each juvenile held in the residential facility to provide a detailed picture of juveniles in custody. The CJRP asked juvenile residential custody facilities in the United States to describe each youth assigned a bed in the facility on a specified reference date. In 1997, the reference date was the fifth Wednesday in October. Characteristics of the facility, treatment services, and facility population were also collected. Each record in the data that provides information about a juvenile also includes the characteristics of the facility in which the juvenile was held. Therefore, the CJRP data can be analyzed at the juvenile or facility level. Some state and regional agencies provide CJRP data for more than one facility under their jurisdiction. The census was not sent to adult facilities or to facilities exclusively for drug or mental health treatment or for abused or neglected children.
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Subject Terms View help for Subject Terms
Geographic Coverage View help for Geographic Coverage
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Restrictions View help for Restrictions
Due to the sensitive nature of the data and to protect respondent confidentiality, the data are restricted from general dissemination. They may only be accessed at the ICPSR Data Enclave in Ann Arbor, MI. Users wishing to view these data must complete an Application for Use of the ICPSR Data Enclave (available for download as part of the documentation for this study), and receive permission to analyze the files before traveling to Ann Arbor. More general information about the Enclave may be found at ICPSR's Enclave Data Web site.
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Data Collection Notes View help for Data Collection Notes
Additional information about the CJRP and other national juvenile corrections data collections sponsored by OJJDP is available from the National Juvenile Corrections Data Resource Guide.
Individual years of data from the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP) and Juvenile Residential Facility Census (JRFC), a compliment to the CJRP data, are available through enclave access. Users interested in utilizing the enclave data must complete an Application for Use of the ICPSR Data Enclave. Additional data in the CJRP Series, JRFC Series, and the Matched CJRP/JRFC Series will be made available in March 2012 through the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data's Restricted Survey Documentation and Analysis (RSDA) system. Users interested in accessing these data through NACJD's RSDA system must complete a RSDA Data Use Agreement.
The CJRP reference date was generally the fourth Wednesday in October. However, the 1997 CJRP reference date was October 29, 1997, which was the fifth Wednesday of the month. Additionally, a set of unforeseen circumstances prevented the 2005 mailout from taking place in October of that year. The census date for that wave of data collection was February 22, 2006.
Study Purpose View help for Study Purpose
The purpose of the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP) is to provide a detailed understanding of juveniles in custody across the United States. The CJRP offers information about youth under 21 detained in or committed to residential facilities across the United States, including demographics, placement and adjudication status, and characteristics of the facilities themselves.
The CJRP was administered for the first time in 1997 by the United States Bureau of the Census for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP). The CJRP replaced the Census of Public and Private Juvenile Detention, Correctional, and Shelter Facilities, also known as the Children in Custody (CIC) census, which had been conducted since the early 1970s. The CJRP differs fundamentally from the CIC in that the CIC collected aggregate data on juveniles held in each facility (e.g., number of juveniles in the facility) and the CJRP collects an individual record on each juvenile held in the residential facility (e.g. sex, race, most serious offense) to provide a more detailed picture of juveniles in custody.
Study Design View help for Study Design
The CJRP is designed to provide one-day population counts for youth in all facilities meeting certain inclusion (see "Sampling" below). The survey has two sections, the first collecting facility-level data and the second collecting individual-level data about all youth residing in the facility as of the reference date (generally the fourth Wednesday in October).
The CJRP is administered by the United States Bureau of the Census for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Facility representatives receive mail questionnaires shortly before the survey reference date. A small number of facilities meeting census inclusion criteria decline to complete sections of the survey or fail to return the census forms after repeated notification and phone contact from Census Bureau personnel; these facilities are designated non-respondents. Other facilities may be unable to provide all the information necessary to complete the survey. In cases where facilities are unable or unwilling to complete all survey items, the Census Bureau uses complete records to impute missing data.
Sample View help for Sample
The CJRP facility inclusion criteria were as follows: residential facilities in operation on the census reference date (generally the fourth Wednesday in October), public or private (or tribal since 1999) operation, and intended for juvenile offenders (although some hold adults as well). Specifically excluded were: nonresidential facilities, detention centers operated as part of adult jails, facilities exclusively for drug abusers or dependent/neglected youth, foster homes, and federal correctional facilities (e.g., Immigration and Naturalization Service, Bureau of Indian Affairs, United States Marshalls, or Bureau of Prisons). Inclusion criteria for individual-level data were as follows: youth under age 21, assigned a bed in a residential facility at the end of the day on the census reference day, charged with an offense or court-adjudicated for an offense, and in residential placement because of that offense.
Time Method View help for Time Method
Universe View help for Universe
Juvenile offenders held in juvenile residential facilities in the United States in 1997.
Unit(s) of Observation View help for Unit(s) of Observation
Data Source View help for Data Source
United States Bureau of the Census questionnaires
Data Type(s) View help for Data Type(s)
Mode of Data Collection View help for Mode of Data Collection
Description of Variables View help for Description of Variables
The 1997 CJRP (n=105,642; 90 variables) collects information on both youth in residential facilities and the facilities themselves.
Section I of the survey form collects facility data, including:
- location (state),
- organizational information,
- facility and treatment characteristics, and
- number of persons assigned beds in relation to age and offense status (total, under 21, 21 or older, assigned a bed because of an offense, assigned a bed for other reasons).
Section II collects individual data, including:
- demographic variables (race, sex, age),
- placement variables (category and level of the placing agency, length of stay), and
- variables related to the judicial process (most serious offense charged, state or territory in which the offense was committed, court adjudication status).
The CJRP dataset also includes Census Bureau variables indicating whether a response to a given item was imputed or not.
Response Rates View help for Response Rates
Using the number of in-scope facilities (i.e., able to hold juvenile offenders over night) as a base, the CJRP facility response rate was 96 percent in 1997.Hide
Original Release Date View help for Original Release Date
Version History View help for Version History
- United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement, 1997 [United States]. ICPSR04673-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2012-02-09. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04673.v1
2016-08-10 Updated documentation and data files; additional detail added to metadata fields.
2014-01-09 User Guide was updated. Application for Use of the ICPSR Data Enclave was added to the collection.
2012-02-09 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
- Created variable labels and/or value labels.
- Standardized missing values.
- Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.