Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities, 2019 (ICPSR 38325)
Version Date: Aug 18, 2022 View help for published
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The 2019 Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities (CCF) was the ninth enumeration of state institutions and the sixth enumeration of federal institutions sponsored by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and its predecessors. Earlier censuses were completed in 1979 (ICPSR 7852), 1984 (ICPSR 8444), 1990 (ICPSR 9908), 1995 (ICPSR 6953), 2000 (ICPSR 4021), 2005 (ICPSR 24642), and 2012 (ICPSR 37294). The 2019 CCF consisted of two data collection instruments - one for confinement facilities and one for community-based facilities. For each facility, information was provided on facility operator; sex of prisoners authorized to be housed by facility; facility functions; percentage of prisoners authorized to leave the facility; one-day counts of prisoners by sex, race/ethnicity, special populations, and holding authority; number of walkaways occurring over a one-year period; and educational and other special programs offered to prisoners. Additional information was collected from confinement facilities, including physical security level; housing for special populations; capacity; court orders for specific conditions; one-day count of correctional staff by payroll status and sex; one-day count of security staff by sex and race/ethnicity; assaults and incidents caused by prisoners; number of escapes occurring over a one-year period; and work assignments available to prisoners. Late in the data collection to avoid complete nonresponse from facilities, BJS offered the option of providing critical data elements from the two data collection instruments. These elements included facility operator; sex of prisoners authorized to be housed by facility; facility functions; percentage of prisoners authorized to leave the facility; one-day counts of prisoners by sex, and holding authority. Physical security level was an additional critical data element for confinement facilities.
The census counted prisoners held in the facilities, a custody count. Some prisoners who are held in the custody of one jurisdiction may be under the authority of a different jurisdiction. The custody count is distinct from a count of prisoners under a correctional authority's jurisdiction, which includes all prisoners over whom a correctional authority exercises control, regardless of where the prisoner is housed. A jurisdictional count is more inclusive than a prison custody count and includes state and federal prisoners housed in local jails or other non-correctional facilities.
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After the completion of the 2012 prison census and prior to July 2014, the prison facility universe was updated in preparation for sample selection for BJS's 2016 Survey of Prison Inmates (ICPSR 37692). In preparation for the launch of the 2019 CCF, additional work was conducted to further update the facility universe. Two efforts to enhance the universe--one for the community-based facilities and one for confinement facilities--were conducted. In both efforts, each state's department of corrections was provided an up-to-date list of facilities and asked to provide information to determine facility eligibility and to identify any facilities missing from the list. The BOP provided BJS with comprehensive lists of confinement and community-based correctional facilities.
The CCF universe included adult confinement and community-based correctional facilities operated by state governments, the federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP), or private entities under contract with state or BOP authorities. Facilities were included in the enumeration if they: (1) held prisoners primarily for state or BOP authorities, (2) were physically, functionally, and administratively separate from other facilities, and (3) were operational on June 30, 2019.
Facilities in combined jail and prison systems in Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Rhode Island, and Vermont were included. Contracted facilities operated by local correctional authorities and holding prisoners under state or BOP authorities were excluded as these facilities are deemed jails. (See Census of Jails, 2005-2019 - Statistical Tables (NCJ 255406, BJS, October 2021) for details on facilities operated by local correctional authorities.) Facilities operated by or for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), U.S. military, U.S. territory, and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) facilities were not included in the 2019 CCF. Each state DOC, with the exception of Massachusetts, designated a central respondent to provide data for all of its state-operated facilities. Additionally, nine private contractors acted as central respondents for the facilities they operated. When possible, data were obtained from each individual correctional facility regardless of whether it shared budget or staff with another facility.
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2022-08-18 Data were updated to correct a misspelled facility name in variable V005.
2022-06-16 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
- Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
- Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.