Justifying Violence: Attitudes of American Men, 1969 (ICPSR 3504)

Version Date: Nov 4, 2005 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Monica D. Blumenthal; Robert L. Kahn; Frank M. Andrews


Version V2

Slide tabs to view more

This study contains data on the attitudes of 1,374 American men aged 16-64 toward violence in 1969. The study was undertaken to examine the levels of violence that can be viewed as justified to bring about social control or social change. Also emphasized were the role of the respondents' personal values, their definitions of violence, and their identification with the groups involved in violence. Some of the open-ended questions in the structured interview probed the respondents' general concerns, their attitudes toward violence, and their views on the causes of and ways of preventing violence. In questions grouped into categories of "violence for social control" and "violence for social change", respondents were asked to react to situations involving protests and other disturbances such as hoodlum gang disturbances, students' protests, and Black protest demonstrations. Repondents' opinions were sought on the appropriate police actions in these situations and the frequency with which certain control measures should be utilized. Respondents were also asked in three different situations whether they believed change could be effected without action involving property damage or injury, or if change could only be effected with protests in which some people were killed. Demographic variables describe age, sex, date of birth, nationality, occupation, education, religion, and family income. A supplementary sample of Black men is also included in this study in order to permit separate analysis on the basis of race.

Blumenthal, Monica D., Kahn, Robert L., and Andrews, Frank M. Justifying Violence:  Attitudes of American Men, 1969. [distributor], 2005-11-04. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03504.v2

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote
National Science Foundation (GS2424)

  1. The codebook is provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.


A total of 1,374 men aged 16-64, including a supplementary sample of Black men, living in dwelling units in the coterminous United States in 1969.

personal interviews



2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Blumenthal, Monica D., Robert L. Kahn, and Frank M. Andrews. JUSTIFYING VIOLENCE: ATTITUDES OF AMERICAN MEN, 1969. Conducted by University of Michigan, Survey Research Center. 2nd ICPSR ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [producer and distributor], 1978. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03504.v2

2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.

1984-05-03 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.


  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.