International Civic and Citizenship Education Study, 2016 (ICPSR 37147)

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International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement


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ICCS 2016

The International Civic and Citizenship Education Study, 2016 (ICCS) is an international assessment of the ways in which young people are prepared to undertake their roles as citizens. It investigated student knowledge and understanding of civics and citizenship as well as students' perceptions, attitudes, and activities related to civics and citizenship. It also examined differences among countries in these outcomes and the relationship of these outcomes to students' individual characteristics and family backgrounds, to teaching practices, and to school and broader community contexts.

Like its predecessor IEA Civic Education Study, 1999 (CIVED), ICCS 2016 included a student test of civic knowledge and understanding, as well as questionnaires for students, teachers, and school principals. The comprehensive core assessment was complemented by regional modules for Europe and Latin America, designed to flexibly recognize regional interests and investigate related aspects of civic and citizenship education. The survey data were supplemented by information about the national contexts for civic and citizenship education gathered by the national research centers of the participating countries.

Data were collected in 2015-2016 under the auspices of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) headquartered in Amsterdam. ICCS collected data from more than 94,000 eighth grade (or equivalent) students in about 3,800 schools from 24 countries. These student data were augmented with data from more than 37,000 teachers in those schools and further contextual data collected from school principals and national research centers.

International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement. International Civic and Citizenship Education Study, 2016. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2018-10-24.

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International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, European Commission. Directorate-General for Education and Culture


Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research

2015 -- 2016
2015-10 -- 2015-12 (Southern Hemisphere), 2016-03 -- 2016-04 (Northern Hemisphere)
  1. For more information about the study, users should visit the IEA International Civic and Citizenship Education Study web site.

ICCS addressed research questions concerned with the following:

  1. Students' knowledge and understanding of civics and citizenship and the factors associated with variations in this civic knowledge.
  2. Students' current and expected future involvement in civic-related activities, their perceptions of their capacity to engage in these activities, and their perceptions of the value of civic engagement.
  3. Students' beliefs about contemporary civil and civic issues in society, including those concerned with civic institutions, rules, and social principles (democracy, citizenship, and diversity), as well as their perceptions of their communities and threats to the world's future.
  4. The ways in which countries organize civic and citizenship education, with a particular focus on general approaches, the curriculum and its delivery, and the processes used to facilitate future citizens' civic engagement and interaction within and across communities.

Sampling procedures targeted students enrolled in the eighth grade, provided that the average age of students at this year level was 13.5 years or above. In countries where the average age of students in eighth grade was less than 13.5 years, ninth grade students were defined as the target population.

The samples were designed as two-stage cluster samples. In the first stage of sampling, schools were sampled within each country using PPS (probability proportional to size as measured by the number of students enrolled in a school). The numbers required in the sample to achieve the necessary precision were estimated on the basis of national characteristics. However, as a guide, a minimum sample size of 150 schools was planned in each country. Within each sampled school, an intact class from the target grade was sampled randomly, and all students in that class were surveyed.

The population for the ICCS teacher survey was defined as all teachers teaching regular school subjects to the students in the target grade at each sampled school. Up to 15 teachers were selected at random from all teachers teaching the target grade at each sampled school. In schools with 20 or fewer such teachers, all teachers were invited to participate. In schools with more than 20 teachers, 15 of those teachers were sampled at random.

Eighth grade or ninth grade students and their teachers and principals at participating schools in 24 countries.


Please note that the datasets that make up this study are divided by questionnaire and by country.

  • Datasets 1-24 correspond with the School Questionnaire
  • Datasets 25-48 correspond with the International Student Achievement Questionnaire
  • Datasets 49-63 correspond with the European Module Student Questionnaire
  • Datasets 64-87 correspond with the International Student Questionnaire
  • Datasets 88-92 correspond with the Latin American Module Student Questionnaire
  • Datasets 93-116 correspond with the International Student Reliability Questionnaire
  • Datasets 117-138 correspond with the Teacher Questionnaire
  • Dataset 139 corresponds with the National Context Questionnaire

A minimum response rate of 50% for a sampled class was required in order for it to be considered a 'participating class.' All sampled classes and at least 50% of sampled teachers were required to participate for a sampled school to be considered a 'participating school.'

Please see the ICCS 2016 Technical Report for additional information.



2018-10-24 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Estimation weights and variance estimation variables (jackknife replicate weights) are included with each file. Users should refer to the ICCS 2016 User Guide for the International Database for more information on proper use of weighting and variance estimation variables.



  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.