The project's aims included studying (1) development and persistence of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders and (2) pathways and patterns of risky behaviors. Changes in disorders over time were studied (including onset, remission, and recurrence), comorbidity, associated functional impairments, and the risk and protective factors related to these disorders and impairments. This study addressed patterns and sequences of the development of drug use and related variables, focusing on gender differences, racial/ethnic differences, the antecedents of these risky behaviors (risk and protective factors), and how these behaviors were interrelated. The development and persistence of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders of delinquent youth are examined.
Data from the baseline interview were deposited at the National Addiction and HIV Data Archive Program with the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research. Data from the first follow-up (conducted approximately three years after the baseline), second follow-up (conducted approximately three and a half years after the baseline), third follow-up (conducted approximately four years after the baseline), and fourth follow-up (conducted approximately 4.5 years after baseline) were deposited with ICPSR's National Archive of Criminal Justice Data.
A random subsample of participants was scheduled for a follow-up interview approximately 6 years after their baseline interview (Follow-up 5). Participants were tracked until they were found for an interview, withdrew, or were known to have died. Some participants who were difficult to locate received their follow-up interviews substantially later than the planned interview dates.
Follow-up interviews were conducted face-to-face wherever the participant was living--in the community or in any correctional facility in Illinois--at the time their interview was due. However, community interviews were conducted by telephone if the participant lived more than 2 hours away. Diagnostic modules were administered via pencil and paper interviewing (PAPI) or computer assisted personal interviewing (CAPI). Non-diagnostic modules were initially administered via PAPI; however beginning with the fifth follow-up, they were administered via CAPI.
A stratified random sample of 1,829 youth at intake from Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (CCJTDC) in Chicago, Illinois, was recruited between November 20, 1995, and June 14, 1998. This baseline sample was stratified by gender, race/ethnicity (African American, non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, "other" race/ethnicity), age (10-13 years or 14 years and older), and legal status (processed in juvenile or adult court) to obtain enough participants to examine key subgroups (e.g., females, Hispanics, younger persons). There were a total of 13 strata, as listed below. There were too few female detainees of each race/ethnicity and detainees identified as "other" race/ethnicity to further stratify these groups. Detainees aged 10 to 13 years were not stratified by legal status because they were generally too young to be considered for transfer to adult court.
- African American females
- Non-Hispanic white females
- Hispanic females
- African American males, aged 10-13 years
- Non-Hispanic white males, aged 10-13 years
- Hispanic males, aged 10-13 years
- African American males, 14 years or older and processed as adult transfer
- Non-Hispanic white males, 14 years or older and processed as adult transfer
- Hispanic males, 14 years or older and processed as adult transfer
- African American males, 14 years or older and processed as a juvenile
- Non-Hispanic white males, 14 years or older and processed as a juvenile
- Hispanic white males, 14 years or older and processed as a juvenile
- Other race/ethnicity
Detainees were eligible to be sampled regardless of their psychiatric morbidity, state of drug or alcohol intoxication, or fitness to stand trial. Within each stratum, the project used a random-numbers table to select names from Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center's intake log. The final sampling fractions for the stratum ranged from 0.018 to 0.689.
The fifth follow-up was conducted approximately 6 years after the baseline with a random subsample.
Longitudinal: Panel: Continuous
Male and female juvenile detainees, ages 10 to 18, at intake to the Cook County (IL) Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (CCJTDC) between November 20, 1995 and June 14, 1998.
Follow-up 5, consists of 47 data files. Follow-up interview data are stored in separate datasets corresponding to each interview module.
The Incarceration data (Incarceration) (da36949-0047: 10 variables, 1489 observations) comes from a combination of correctional records and self-report, and includes information on the number of days incarcerated prior to the interview.
- The main dataset (Main) includes administrative information on what measures were conducted, the location of and type of interview, interview date and age of respondent at interview. This dataset (da36949-0001) has 19 variables, 1829 observations.
- The interviewer comments (Comments) asked the interviewer to record their observations of how participants managed the interview, including whether participants had any difficulties with particular measures, whether participants seemed to be truthful, and whether the participant exhibited any psychotic symptoms. Interviewers filled out this observational measure following the interview. The dataset (da36949-0002) includes 64 variables, 1482 observations
- The Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) includes multidimensional measurements of functional impairment and scales of role performance, behavior toward others, mood, self-harmful behavior, substance use, and thinking. This dataset (da36949-0003) includes 37 variables and 1483 observations.
- The Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS) module summarizes the interviewer's impression of the lowest level of the participant's functioning at home, in school and/or work, and in other social environments. This dataset (da36949-0004) has 4 variables and 1482 observations.
- The Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), Version IV is a structured interview that assesses psychiatric disorders based on DSM-IV (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition) criteria. The dataset referencing the interview questionnaire (da36949-0006) contains 734 variables and 1485 observations. These variables include demographics, alcohol withdrawal, dependence, and abuse; amphetamine withdrawal, dependence, and abuse; Antisocial Personality Disorder, and Conduct Disorder. The diagnostic dataset (da36949-0005) contains 902 variables and 1485 observations. These variables were generated by scoring algorithms using items from the interview questionnaire.
- World Mental Health Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), is a comprehensive, fully-structured interview designed to be used by trained lay interviewers to assess mental disorders based on the definitions and criteria of DSM-IV. The dataset referencing the interview questionnaire (da36949-0008) contains information regarding: depression, generalized anxiety disorders, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Panic Disorder, Mania, and Suicidality. This dataset includes 648 variables and 1481 observations. An additional dataset, (da36949-0007) with 288 variables and 1481 observations, contains variables regarding the diagnoses for mental disorders that were generated by scoring algorithms using items from the interview questionnaire.
- Northwestern Juvenile Project Interview (Interview). Beginning with Follow-Up 5, the "non-diagnostic" components of the interview (e.g., the Child and Family Assessment (CFA) and the Risky Behavior Assessment Profile (RBAP)) were integrated into a unified interview called the NJP Interview (see eTable 1). The NJP Interview has 38 data sets. The topics covered were as follows:
- Non-School Services
- Service Sectors
- Referral Sources
- Payment information
- Attitudes and Barriers to Treatment: Receptivity to services
- Attitudes and Barriers to Treatment: Perception of barriers to
- Arrest, Violence, and Gun Questions
- Gang Activity
- Sexual risk behavior
- Drug use history and recent drug use
- Drug Injection and Needle Use
By 8 years after their baseline interview, 1388 participants had received a Follow-up 5 interview. A total of 101 participants received Follow-up 5 interviews more than 8 years after their baseline interview. Other reasons for non-response at Follow-up 5 were: died before the 8-year cut-off (n=61); withdrew from the study (n=39); and could not be located (n=240).
BAS - Bidimensional Acculturation Scale
CAFAS - Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale
CGAS - Children's Global Assessment Scale
DIS - Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version IV