The project's aims included studying (1) development and persistence of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders and (2) pathways and patterns of risky behaviors. Changes in disorders over time were studied (including onset, remission, and recurrence), comorbidity, associated functional impairments, and the risk and protective factors related to these disorders and impairments. This study addressed patterns and sequences of the development of drug use and related variables, focusing on gender differences, racial/ethnic differences, the antecedents of these risky behaviors (risk and protective factors), and how these behaviors were interrelated. The development and persistence of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders of delinquent youth are examined.
Data from the baseline interview were deposited at the National Addiction and HIV Data Archive Program with the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research. Data from the first follow-up (conducted approximately three years after the baseline) and second follow-up (conducted approximately three and a half years after the baseline) were deposited with ICPSR's National Archive of Criminal Justice Data.
A random subsample of participants was scheduled for a third follow-up interview approximately 4 years after their baseline interview (Follow-up 3). Participants were tracked until they were found for an interview, withdrew, or were known to have died. Some participants who were difficult to locate received their follow-up interviews substantially later than the planned interview dates.
Follow-up interviews were conducted face-to-face wherever the participant was living--in the community or in any correctional facility in Illinois--at the time their interview was due. However, community interviews were conducted by telephone if the participant lived more than 2 hours away. Diagnostic modules were administered via pencil and paper interviewing (PAPI) or computer assisted personal interviewing (CAPI). Non-diagnostic modules were administered via PAPI.
A stratified random sample of 1,829 youth at intake from Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (CCJTDC) in Chicago, Illinois, was recruited between November 20, 1995, and June 14, 1998. This baseline sample was stratified by gender, race/ethnicity (African American, non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, "other" race/ethnicity), age (10-13 years or 14 years and older), and legal status (processed in juvenile or adult court) to obtain enough participants to examine key subgroups (e.g., females, Hispanics, younger persons). There were a total of 13 strata, as listed below. There were too few female detainees of each race/ethnicity and detainees identified as "other" race/ethnicity to further stratify these groups. Detainees aged 10 to 13 years were not stratified by legal status because they were generally too young to be considered for transfer to adult court.
- African American females
- Non-Hispanic white females
- Hispanic females
- African American males, aged 10-13 years
- Non-Hispanic white males, aged 10-13 years
- Hispanic males, aged 10-13 years
- African American males, 14 years or older and processed as adult transfer
- Non-Hispanic white males, 14 years or older and processed as adult transfer
- Hispanic males, 14 years or older and processed as adult transfer
- African American males, 14 years or older and processed as a juvenile
- Non-Hispanic white males, 14 years or older and processed as a juvenile
- Hispanic white males, 14 years or older and processed as a juvenile
- Other race/ethnicity
Detainees were eligible to be sampled regardless of their psychiatric morbidity, state of drug or alcohol intoxication, or fitness to stand trial. Within each stratum, the project used a random-numbers table to select names from Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center's intake log. The final sampling fractions ranged from 0.018 to 0.689.
The third follow-up was conducted approximately 4 years after the baseline with a random subsample.
Longitudinal: Panel: Continuous
Male and female juvenile detainees, ages 10 to 18, at intake to the Cook County (IL) Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (CCJTDC) between November 20, 1995 and June 14, 1998.
Follow-up 3 consists of 23 data files. Follow-up interview data are stored in separate datasets corresponding to each interview module.
- The main dataset (MAIN) includes administrative information on what measures were conducted, the location of and type of interview, interview date and age of respondent at interview. This dataset (da36651-0001) has 25 variables, 997 observations.
- The interviewer comments (COMMENTS) asked the interviewer to record their observations of how participants managed the interview, including whether participants had any difficulties with particular measures, whether participants seemed to be truthful, and whether the participant exhibited any psychotic symptoms. Interviewers filled out this observational measure following the interview. The dataset (da36651-0002) includes 64 variables, 915 observations
- The Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS) includes multidimensional measurements of functional impairment and scales of role performance, behavior toward others, mood, self-harmful behavior, substance use, and thinking. This dataset (da36651-0003) includes 37 variables and 912 observations.
- The Child and Adolescent Services Assessment - Modified (CASA-M) probes dimensions of service use for each mental health or substance abuse service. Dimensions include reason for services, type of treatment, frequency and duration of the service, referral sources, pathways to services, and attitudes and barriers to treatment. There are 5 data files associated with this module: da36651-0004 (366 variables, 913 observations) refers to the school services screener, da36651-0005 (57 variables, 37 observations) refers to non-school services screen, da36651-0006 (62 variables, 10 observations) refers to services provided in addition to mental health services from da36651-0004 and da36651-0005, da36651-0007 (134 variables, 68 observations) refers to the referral source for the mental health services, and da36651-0008 (128 variables, 142 observations) refers to subject's attitudes and barriers to treatment.
- The Child and Family Assessment (CFA) assesses risk and protective factors for psychopathology as well as actors related to initiation, escalation, and desistance of delinquency and violence. Variables included cover: demographic assessment, medical screen, family functioning assessment (parenting practices, family cohesion and conflict, and family attitudes and beliefs), significant losses, community functioning, quality of life and life events, and future orientation. The CFA module contains two datasets: da36651-0009 (741 variables, 911 observations) and da36651-0010 (43 variables, 3305 observations).
- The Children's Global Assessment Scale (GAS) module summarizes the interviewer's impression of the lowest level of the participant's functioning at home, in school and/or work, and in other social environments. This dataset (da36651-0011) has 4 variables and 911 observations.
- The Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS), Version IV is a structured interview that assesses psychiatric disorders based on DSM-IV criteria. The dataset referencing the interview questionnaire (da36651-0013) contains 605 variables and 912 observations. These variables include demographics, alcohol withdrawal, dependence, and abuse; amphetamine withdrawal, dependence, and abuse; Antisocial Personality Disorder, and Conduct Disorder. The diagnostic dataset (da36651-0012) contains 587 variables and 912 observations. These variables were generated by scoring algorithms using items from the interview questionnaire.
- The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC), Version 2.3 is a structured interview, of children, that assesses psychiatric disorders based on DSM-IV criteria. The interview questionnaire (da36651-0015) contains information regarding: demographics, anxiety disorders, Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Major Depression/Dysthymic Disorder, Mania/Hypomania, Schizophrenia, Attention-Deficit/Hyper Activity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, Conduct Disorder, and Antisocial Personality Disorder. This dataset includes 701 variables and 911 observations. An additional dataset contains variables regarding the diagnoses for psychiatric disorders that were generated by scoring algorithms using items from the interview questionnaire (da36651-0014) with 255 variables and 911 observations.
- The Risky Behavior Assessment Profile (RBAP) assesses drug use, HIV/AIDs risk, and criminal activity. Items were drawn from Washington, DC, Metropolitan Area Drug Study of Juveniles, National Institute of Drug Abuse's (NIDA) Risk Behavior Assessment, the Adolescent Health Survey from the NIDA Study of Street Youth at Risk for AIDS, and the Denver Youth Survey. Modules include: drug use history and recent drug use (da36651-0017: 104 variables, 962 observations); injection drug use (da36651-0019: 71 variables, 4 observations); sexual risk behavior (da36651-0021: 150 variables, 755 observations); participation in AIDS intervention programming (da36651-0020: 61 variables, 672 observations); and AIDS knowledge, violent behavior, gang activity, and attitudes and peer behavior (da36651-0016: 1216 variables, 911 observations). There is also a separate dataset containing coded open-ended responses (da36651-0018: 20 variables, 970 observations).
- The Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (KBIT) measures verbal intelligence, based on expressive vocabulary and word definitions, and nonverbal intelligence, based on a matrices subtest utilizing visual analogies and relationships, with scores constructed from individual testing items. The KBIT was administered to assess neuropsychological status. While the majority of participants received the KBIT at Follow-up 3, some (n=55) were administered the KBIT at Follow-up 1 before it was dropped due to time constraints. Testing items and derived scores for both follow-ups are provided in the same dataset (da36651-0022) with 143 variables and 807 observations. Please see the user guide and the weight note below for more information on analyzing KBIT scores.
- The incarceration data (INCARCERATION) comes from a combination of correctional records and self-report, and includes information on the number of days incarcerated prior to the interview. The dataset (da36651-0023) has 10 variables and 914 observations.
By 6 years after their baseline interview, 856 participants had received a Follow-up 3 interview. Fifty-eight participants received Follow-up 3 interviews more than 6 years after their baseline interview. Other reasons for non-response at Follow-up 3 were: died before the 6-year cut-off (n=14); withdrew from the study (n=17); and could not be located (n=52).
CAFAS - Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale
CASA - Child and Adolescent Services Assessment
CFA - Child and Family Assessment
CGAS - Children's Global Assessment Scale
DIS - Diagnostic Interview Schedule, Version IV
DISC - Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children, Version IV
RBAP - Risky Behavior Assessment Profile
KBIT - Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test