Referenda and Primary Election Materials (ICPSR 6)

Version Date: Jun 5, 1995 View help for published

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Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research


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This data collection contains election returns at the county and state levels from the mid-nineteenth century to the late twentieth century for primary and general elections on statewide referenda, constitutional amendments, state House/Senate joint resolutions, and initiated measures. The ballot language of each measure is also included. County-level returns for most gubernatorial, senatorial, and congressional primary elections from 1910 to the present are documented as well.

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. Referenda and Primary Election Materials . [distributor], 1995-06-05.

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote

  1. Most of the information for this collection is available ONLY in typed and photocopied form. The exception is statewide referenda data from 1968 to 1990, which ICPSR has converted into machine-readable form. Included in this portion of the collection are the county vote breakdowns for approximately 4,241 referenda voted upon in primary and general elections throughout the United States. A typed hardcopy codebook accompanies each state file. The primary election data are NOT available in machine-readable form. It is possible to supply, on a cost basis, limited portions of the referenda and primary election returns that are not machine-readable in the form of photocopies.


official election returns provided by state governments



2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. REFERENDA AND PRIMARY ELECTION MATERIALS. ICPSR ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [producer and distributor], 1995.

1984-06-19 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.