Flint [Michigan] Adolescent Study (FAS): A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of Substance Use on Adult Transitional Events, 2000-2003 (ICPSR 37032)

Version Date: Jul 30, 2018 View help for published

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Marc A. Zimmerman, University of Michigan. School of Public Health


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Flint Adolescent Study, Waves 5-8, FAS, 2000-2003

The Flint [Michigan] Adolescent Study (FAS): A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of Substance Use on Adult Transitional Events, 2000-2003 collection includes data collected as part of four follow-up waves conducted for the Flint Adolescent Study (FAS). These data are waves five through eight, the original four waves can be found in ICPSR study 34598 (Flint [Michigan] Adolescent Study (FAS): A Longitudinal Study of School Dropout and Substance Use, 1994-1997.)

The Flint Adolescent Study (FAS) originally interviewed 850 ninth graders in the four public high schools of Flint, MI, between 1994 and 1997. Follow-up wave interviews were conducted four years after high school, between 2000 and 2003, as participants transitioned to young adulthood. The study was conducted in collaboration with the projects of Urban and Regional Affairs and Flint Community Schools. The goal of the study was to explore the protective factors associated with school dropout and alcohol and substance use. The study followed the youths for four years beginning in the Fall of 1994 to gather the first four waves of the study. The sample reflected the overall student body in the Flint high schools. In order to study those students most at risk for leaving school before graduation, individuals with grade point averages of 3.0 and below were selected.

Interviews were conducted face-to-face with each participant in a community location. Each interview took about one hour to complete. At the end of the interview students were asked to complete the last section of the questionnaire containing questions about their drug use and sexual behavior by themselves.

Information obtained from the participants include: participation in church and community organizations; social support and influence of family and friends; self-esteem and psychological wellbeing; delinquent and violent behaviors; alcohol and substance use; sexual behavior and child bearing; school attitudes and performance; and family structure and relationships. Many items included in the follow-up waves repeat those present in the original surveys. Questions were also asked about driving behavior, stress, and racial identity. Data was also collected about participant education and occupation.

Demographic variables in this collection include age, sex, race, education, occupation, employment history, residence type, household composition, height and weight, marital status, and number of children.

Zimmerman, Marc A. Flint [Michigan] Adolescent Study (FAS): A Longitudinal Follow-Up Study of Substance Use on Adult Transitional Events, 2000-2003. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2018-07-30. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR37032.v1

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United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse


Users are reminded that these data are to be used solely for statistical analysis and reporting of aggregated information and not for the investigation of specific individuals.

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research

2000 -- 2003
2000 -- 2003
  1. For additional information about the Flint Adolescent Study, please visit the FAS Study website.
  2. ICPSR created a variable crosswalk to show the consistency of questions asked across the current fours waves and with the previous four waves. The crosswalk is included with each part's questionnaire file. Please note that almost all of the repeated variables were asked in the same way and have the same variable and value labels. However, there are a few variables that do have slight differences in their wording. Please consult each year's codebook and questionnaire when looking at variables across time.


The original four waves of FAS were designed to examine the risk and protective effects of psychosocial factors for school apathy. The specific aims of the second for waves of this study were to examine the effects of alcohol and other drug use (AOD) on adult transitional events such as marriage and family formation, education achievement, and employment. Other psychosocial outcomes such as violent behavior, higher stage AOD, sexual behaviors, psychological well-being, social relationships, and community involvement were also examined.

For the initial FAS sample, researchers sampled all youth in the four main public high schools in Flint, Michigan in 1994, which had a grade point average (GPA) of 3.0 or lower, and self-identified as African American, White, or mixed background. GPA was a selection criteria because the original study was designed to examine whether school dropout and GPA was a consistent factor correlated with dropout. Race was an inclusion criteria because only 3 percent of the student body was not African American or White (or mixed race).

The Flint community high schools had 910 students who met this criterion, and 850 students participated in the first year of FAS data collection. Of the 60 students who were not enrolled in the study, most had moved out of the district or did not identify. Fewer than 10 of these 60 youth either refused to participate or their parents refused consent. The original sample comprised 50% females, and approximately 80 percent of participants were African American. The demographics of the sample were representative of the student body in the school district.

Researchers made significant effort throughout the study to keep the level of attrition as low as possible. Year one of the study included 850 9th grade youth, and year four maintained a 91 percent response rate. The following are the number of participants for each of the current waves:

  • Wave 5 - 572 participants
  • Wave 6 - 639 participants
  • Wave 7 - 576 participants
  • Wave 8 - 579 participants
  • Longitudinal: Cohort / Event-based

    For the original data collection, ninth grade at-risk youth attending public high schools in Flint, Michigan who were African American, Caucasian, or a mix.


    There are more than 860 unique variables across all eight waves of FAS data collection. About 12 percent of these variables are repeated in all eight waves. The number of variables per data file are:

    Original Waves:

  • 1994: 399
  • 1995: 522
  • 1996: 562
  • 1997: 600
  • Second Waves:

  • 2000: 684
  • 2000/2001: 673
  • 2001/2002: 680
  • 2002/2003: 877
  • The overall response rate from year 1 to year 8 is 68 percent.



    2018-07-30 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

    • Performed consistency checks.
    • Created variable labels and/or value labels.
    • Standardized missing values.
    • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
    • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

    There are no weight variables associated with the data files.



    • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.

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    This study is maintained and distributed by the National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program (NAHDAP). NAHDAP is supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).