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American Identity and Representation Survey, 2012 (ICPSR 36410)

Version Date: Jul 22, 2016 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Deborah Schildkraut, Tufts University

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This survey was designed to investigate whether having psychological connections to particular groups (ex: racial, ethnic, and national origin groups) and perceptions of discrimination lead to alienation from the structure and operation of representative democracy in the United States. The data allow for comparative ethnic analyses of people's views regarding the representative-constituent relationship and of the conditions under which group identifications and perceptions of discrimination matter.

The survey includes oversamples of Black, Latino, and Asian respondents. A Spanish version of the survey was available. Demographic information retrieved about respondents include age, race/ethnicity, gender, education (highest degree received), employment status, marital status, religion, household size and income. In addition, ancestry was assessed with the question, "From what countries or parts of the world did your ancestors come?" Respondents also reported United States citizenship status, primary home language, and nationality. Variables focusing on respondent perceived representation in the United States include political ideology and political party affiliation.

Schildkraut, Deborah. American Identity and Representation Survey, 2012. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-07-22.

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Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research

2012-08-22 -- 2012-08-27, 2012-10-09 -- 2012-10-23
  1. DOV stands for Data-only variable.

    Variables beginning with DOV represent the result of merging of the respective source variable while trying to address any missing data from the source variable.


GfK sampled households from its KnowledgePanel, a probability-based web panel designed to be representative of the United States. KnowledgePanel members are recruited through national random samples, originally by telephone and now almost entirely by postal mail. To qualify for the main survey, a KnowledgePanel member must be over 18 years old. For this survey, four nationally representative samples of United States adults (18 and older) in four race/ethnicity groups (Whites, African American/Black, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian) were selected. More sampling information can be found in the ICPSR-generated codebook (Appendix: Sampling Information).


Non-institutionalized adults age 18 and over residing in the United States.


57 percent



2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Schildkraut, Deborah. American Identity and Representation Survey, 2012. ICPSR36410-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-07-22.

2016-07-22 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

A post-stratification process is used to adjust for any survey non-response as well as any non-coverage or under- and over-sampling resulting from the study-specific sample design. For this study respondents were weighted to benchmarks of non-institutionalized, civilian population age 18+ within each of the race/ethnicity groups sampled.

After this final post-stratification adjustment, the distribution of the calculated weights are examined to identify and, if necessary, trim outliers at the extreme upper and lower tails of the weight distribution. The post-stratified and trimmed weights are then scaled to the sum of the total sample size of all eligible respondents (weight1) and to respondents within each race ethnicity group (weight2). More weighting information can be found in the weighting section in the documentation.