Chicago Lawyers Survey, 1994-1995 (ICPSR 4100)

Version Date: Aug 22, 2012 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
John P. Heinz, American Bar Foundation, and Northwestern University; Edward O. Laumann, American Bar Foundation, and University of Chicago; Robert L. Nelson, American Bar Foundation, and Northwestern University; Rebecca Sandefur, Stanford University; Paul S. Schnorr, American Bar Foundation


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Conducted as a partial replication of the CHICAGO LAWYERS SURVEY, 1975 (ICPSR 8218), this 1994-1995 survey sought to analyze the processes of change that transformed the practice of law and the market for legal services over the two decades between 1975 and 1995. Randomly selected Chicago, Illinois, lawyers were asked about, for example, the nature of their work, work settings, fields of practice, job satisfaction, career histories, professional commitment, client characteristics, and social and political values. Results revealed important changes in the legal profession between 1975 and 1995: women entered the profession in substantial numbers, new specialties were created, law firms and corporate legal departments grew dramatically, and in many organizations the practice of law became constrained by bureaucratic rules and procedures. Background information includes state of residence during high school, college or university attended, law school attended, law school class rank, political preference, degree of political party affiliation, religious preference, marital status, nationality, year of birth, income, race, zip code, number of children, work status of spouse, spouse's nationality, respondents' mother's occupation, respondents' mother's law school, respondents' father's occupation, and respondents' father's law school.

Heinz, John P., Laumann, Edward O., Nelson, Robert L., Sandefur, Rebecca, and Schnorr, Paul S. Chicago Lawyers Survey, 1994-1995. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2012-08-22.

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American Bar Foundation, Chicago Bar Foundation, National Science Foundation (SBR-9411515), Northwestern University. Institute for Policy Research

Access to these data is restricted. Users interested in obtaining these data must complete a Restricted Data Use Agreement, specify the reasons for the request, and obtain IRB approval or notice of exemption for their research.

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research

1994 -- 1995
1994-06 -- 1995-07 (Data were collected during one interview with each respondent, which lasted an average of about 70 minutes.)

There are three separate samples in the dataset: (1) A simple random sample was used. (2) African American respondents from the simple random sample were then asked to nominate other African American lawyers in each of a number of practice settings. A random sample stratified by practice setting was then selected from these nominations. (3) Latino lawyers were chosen by identifying every lawyer listed in Sullivan's directory with a last name that matched those on a list of Spanish surnames compiled by the United States Census. A random sample was then taken from that list.

Lawyers in good standing with the Illinois Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission who had a Chicago address and were under the age of 80 and alive in 1994, African American lawyers working in Chicago in 1994, and Latino lawyers working in Chicago in 1994.

82 percent (simple random sample) -- 8 percent refused and 10 percent were not interviewed due to scheduling difficulties or illness, 71.4 percent (African American sample), 54 percent (Latino sample).



2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Heinz, John P., Edward O. Laumann, Robert L. Nelson, Rebecca Sandefur, and Paul S. Schnorr. Chicago Lawyers Survey, 1994-1995. ICPSR04100-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2006-01-06.

2012-08-22 A Restricted Data Use Agreement form was added to the documentation files that can be downloaded from the study home page.



  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.

  • One or more files in this data collection have special restrictions. Restricted data files are not available for direct download from the website; click on the Restricted Data button to learn more.