Drug Use Among Young American Indians: Epidemiology and Prediction, 1993-2006 and 2009-2013 (ICPSR 35062)

Version Date: Jun 18, 2015 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Fred Beauvais, Colorado State University; Randall Swaim, Colorado State University


Version V3

The Drug Use Among Young Indians: Epidemiology and Prediction study is an annual surveillance effort assessing the levels and patterns of substance use among American Indian (AI) adolescents attending schools on or near reservations. In addition to annual epidemiology of substance use, data pertaining to the normative environment for adolescent substance use were also obtained. For this data collection data comes from annual in-school surveys completed between the years 1993 to 2006, and 2009 to 2013. Students completed the surveys at school during a specified class period. The dataset contains 534 variables for 26,451 students in grades 7 to 12.

Beauvais, Fred, and Swaim, Randall. Drug Use Among Young American Indians: Epidemiology and Prediction, 1993-2006 and 2009-2013. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2015-06-18. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35062.v3

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United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01 DA003371)

Randomized, de-identified community codes

Users are reminded that these data are to be used solely for statistical analysis and reporting of aggregated information and not for the investigation of specific individuals.

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
1993 -- 2000, 2001 -- 2006, 2009 -- 2013
  1. Three distinct time periods of data collection occurred for this data collection:

    • 1993 to 2000
    • 2001 to 2006
    • 2009 to 2013

    The variable WAVE was created by ICPSR to distinguish these three periods.

  2. The data were collected primarily under two separate questionnaires - the American Drug and Alcohol Survey (ADAS) and the Prevention Planning Survey (PPS). The first two data collection periods utilized multiple versions of these surveys. The third data collection period saw these two surveys combined into a single document (AP-1). Here is a breakdown of when each study was used during the first two data collection periods.

    • ADAS A7: 1993
    • ADAS A8: 1994
    • ADAS A9: 1995-2006
    • PPSC1: 1993-1994
    • PPSC2: 1995-2006

  3. Due to the multiple versions of the ADAS and PPSC during the 1993-2000 and 2001-2006 data collection periods individuals who completed one survey but not the other had a missing value assigned by ICPSR for all variables pertaining to the survey not taken. These cases were coded either -2, -3, or -4 depending on the version. The variable label is "Did not complete a __ form". Since the third data collection period, 2009-2013, consisted of a single document no such designation assignment of missing cases exists.

  4. The Principal Investigator deposited a separate data file for the three data collection periods. Due to the substantial overlap in the variables ICPSR merged the three files into one file. The file order and variable names are based off of the 2001-2006 data collection period. The file order was adjusted by ICPSR to account for sub-questions in either of the other two data collection periods. Within the main question these variables were placed after the original variables. Variables unique to 2009-2013 were named by the Principal Investigator beginning with the letter "V" for the variable name. Questions not asked on one of the surveys were assigned by ICPSR a missing value assignment of -5 for those cases.

  5. A few questions used the same wording, and were named the same, but had different response categories. For example between 1993 and 2006 some questions had a Yes/No response format. In 2009-2013 the questions asked for the number of times (categorized) something occurred. For these variables ICPSR renamed the variables from 2009-2013 to include the letter "R" at the end of the variable name. The word "(times)" was also added to the variable label to signify the difference. Within the dataset the two variables follow one another.

  6. In the 1993-2000 and 2001-2006 administrations, questions about grade, age, and gender were asked on both the ADAS and PPSC questionnaires. If data were missing from one of the surveys the data from the other survey was utilized. If there was a discrepancy between the two surveys, the Principal Investigator used the responses from the ADAS survey.

  7. Variables Q38L, Q39K, and Q40K refer to "Adrenochromes" which is a fake drug. These questions were used to identify patterns of exaggeration by the researchers.

  8. The Principal Investigator created the variable ULOCATION to allow analysis by school. It was created by merging the survey year with the order schools were scanned in for that year. So the first school scanned in 2006 would have a value for ULOCATION of 2006001, and the second school scanned would have a value of 2006002. The order schools were scanned in changed from year to year.

  9. Some schools were re-surveyed over the course of a four-year cycle. In order to limit statistical dependence within the data, when schools were repeated, grades which contained students from previously surveyed students were dropped from the dataset. For example, if a school containing grades 9 through 12 was re-surveyed three years later, students in the 12th grade from the second administration of surveys would be dropped, as they would have been in the 9th grade from the first survey administration.

  10. The Principal Investigator did not include any computed scale scores into the dataset. However, the Principal Investigator provided a document describing the computation of the scales they created and used. ICPSR included this in the PDF codebook. Researchers are free to re-create these scales for their own use. Also no variables were reverse coded in the dataset. The Principal Investigator provides the warning that researchers should verify that the variable in use is coded in the direction the researcher intends.

  11. ICPSR created a crosswalk and included it in the PDF questionnaire. The crosswalk contains the complete list of variables, in the order they appear in the data file, along with the variable label, and question number from the survey.


This study was part of an ongoing surveillance of the levels and patterns of substance abuse among American Indian (AI) adolescents who attended schools on or near AI reservations. The purpose was to accurately describe the epidemiology of substance use, observe changes over time, and to assess trends. In addition to substance use epidemiology, a secondary purpose was to investigate the etiology of substance use. Various risk factors associated with adolescent substance use are included in the survey.

Each year of the funding period a survey was completed by a sample of students in the 7th to 12th grades. The sampling frame consisted of schools with at least 20 percent American Indian (AI) students on or near American Indian reservations, stratified by region. The sampling scheme was based on geographic regions in which reservation-based AI's reside. It was a modified version of the geographic regions described by Snipp (2005). A more complete description, along with a table describing the Principal Investigator's modification of Snipp's regions, is included in the PDF codebook.

Longitudinal: Trend / Repeated Cross-section

Students in grades 7 through 12 attending schools on or near American Indian reservations with at least 20 percent American Indian students.


Almost every variable falls into one of four response types:

  • Yes / No
  • Marked / Not marked
  • Four or five point categorical scales
  • Categorized numbers to show frequency

Some of the major topics covered by the survey include:

  • Attitudes and experiences of substance use
  • Attitudes and experiences of school
  • Interaction and influences of friends and family
  • Delinquency
  • Victimization
  • Perceptions of self
  • Activities
  • Cultural activity and tradition

Response rates are not available from the Principal Investigator for the years of 1993 to 2000. For the remaining years they are as follows:

  • 2001-2002: 65 percent
  • 2002-2003: 76 percent
  • 2003-2004: 80 percent
  • 2004-2005: 65 percent
  • 2005-2006: 83 percent
  • 2009-2010: 76 percent
  • 2010-2011: 83 percent
  • 2011-2012: 76 percent
  • 2012-2013: 79 percent

The overall response rate for the study was about 76 percent.

  • American Drug and Alcohol Survey
  • Prevention Planning Survey



2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Beauvais, Fred, and Randall Swaim. Drug Use Among Young American Indians: Epidemiology and Prediction, 1993-2006 and 2009-2013. ICPSR35062-v3. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2015-06-18. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35062.v3

2015-06-18 An additional 9,861 cases were added to the dataset from data collected between 1993 and 2000. An additional five variables were also added to the file (A848A, PPS44A, PPS44B, PPS44C, and PPS44D).

2015-01-07 ICPSR added variables RACE and HISPANIC to the dataset 35062-0001 in order to facilitate online analysis using Quick Tables.

2014-08-05 Added Randall Swaim to the Principal Investigator's list.

2014-07-22 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Created online analysis version with question text.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

No weight variable exists in the dataset.



  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.


This study is maintained and distributed by the National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program (NAHDAP). NAHDAP is supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).