Women in Parliament, 1945-2003: Cross-National Dataset (ICPSR 24340)

Version Date: Dec 22, 2008 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Pamela Paxton, Ohio State University; Jennifer Green, Luther College; Melanie M. Hughes, University of Pittsburgh


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This data collection provides information on women's inclusion in parliamentary bodies in over 150 countries from 1945 to 2003. The dataset allows for extensive, large-scale, cross-national investigation of the factors that explain women's attainment of political power over time and provides educators with comprehensive international and historical information on women in a variety of political positions. Information is provided on female suffrage, the first female member of parliament, yearly percentages of women in parliaments, when women reached important representational milestones, such as 10 percent, 20 percent, and 30 percent of a legislature, and when women achieved highly-visible political positions, such as prime minister, president, or head of parliament.

Paxton, Pamela, Green, Jennifer, and Hughes, Melanie M. Women in Parliament, 1945-2003: Cross-National Dataset. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-12-22. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR24340.v1

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Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research

1945 -- 2003
2003-09-01 -- 2005-04-01
  1. Country births and deaths result in some split records in variable UNID (United Nations Country Code). Please refer to the codebook documentation for more information on the variables in this dataset.

  2. The CASEID variable was created for use with online analysis.

  3. This data collection was produced in 2005 by Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.


A total of 204 independent countries between the years 1945 and 2003.

Women in Parliaments 1945-1995, Inter-Parliamentary Union, 1995, Inter-Parliamentary Union Statistical Archive, Inter-Parliamentary Union Statistical Archive Web site. United States Department of State's Background Notes, United States Department of State's Background Notes Web site.

The Cingranelli-Richards (CIRI) Human Rights Database (Cingranelli and Richards 2004).

The New Book of World Rankings, 1984.

United Nations Statistics Division, United Nations Statistics Division Web site. CIA World Factbook, CIA World Factbook Web site.


2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Paxton, Pamela, Jennifer Green, and Melanie M. Hughes. Women in Parliament, 1945-2003: Cross-National Dataset. ICPSR24340-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-12-22. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR24340.v1

2008-12-22 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created online analysis version with question text.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.