Census of Population and Housing, 1980 [United States] Series

Investigator(s): U.S. Bureau of the Census

In addition to the historic Census files, 1790-1950, ICPSR archives and distributes Census data acquired from the United States Census Bureau as well as files prepared by ICPSR and other principal investigators for the decennial years 1960, 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. These include major sets such as the Summary Tape/Count Files, Master Enumeration District List (MEDList) files, and Public Use Microdata Samples (PUMS), as well as various subsets. ICPSR distributes all data files prepared for the 1980 Census of Population and Housing in accordance with Public Law 94-171 (the reapportionment files), as well as all Public Use Microdata Samples (PUMS) files and all files in the Summary Tape File 1 (STF 1) and Summary Tape File 3 (STF 3) series. ICPSR also distributes many of the files from STF 2 and STF 4. Summary Tape Files (STFs) vary by summary level of geography, detail of information, and whether 100 percent or sample. STF 1 and 2 provide 100-percent data and are based on the set of census questions answered for all persons and housing units. STF 3, 4, and 5 are based on sample data derived from the responses of a sample of the population and housing units and contain more extensive housing and socioeconomic information. In addition, several special tabulations based on the 1980 Census are available, including the Equal Employment Opportunity Special File; Journey-to-Work; Congressional District Equivalency File (99th Congress); County Migration by Selected Characteristics; County Population by Age, Sex, Race, and Spanish Origin; County and MCD by ZIP Code; Person and Housing Unit Counts for Tracts and Minor Civil Divisions; and Extract Data. Master Area Reference Files (MARFs) 1, 2, 3, and 5 and several 1980 Census extracts are available as well. MARFs link geographic areas with their respective numeric codes and indicate the relationships among the various areas recognized. They are also abbreviated summary files containing selected population and housing unit counts which can be used for the preparation of sampling frames or for analyzing the content and scope of data to be presented on STF1 and STF2. Public Use Microdata Samples (PUMS) were created by the Census Bureau since 1960 as part of each decennial enumeration. Public Use Microdata Samples (PUMS) for the 1980 Census contain individual- and household-level information from the long-form questionnaires distributed to a sample of the population enumerated in the Census. PUMS make it possible for researchers to create tabulations tailored to their particular questions and to make time-series comparisons. Three different PUMS series were prepared in 1980, each containing a number of discrete physical files. These series are called the A Sample, the B Sample, and the C Sample. The A sample represents the state, the B sample represents the metro areas, and the C sample represents the urban/rural areas. The state (A) sample identifies all states, larger metropolitan areas, and most counties over 100,000 population. In many cases, individual cities are also identified. The state sample is very large, including 1-in-20 (5 percent) of the United States population. Only 20 states can be completely identified, because metropolitan areas frequently cross state boundaries and identification of both state and metropolitan area would violate the confidentiality rules. The metro (B) sample identifies 282 metropolitan areas over 100,000 population. Metropolitan areas are distinguished from non-metropolitan areas, but the sample does not identify urban/rural residence. The urban/rural (C) sample identifies urban/rural residence, central city residence, and particular urbanized areas. Because of confidentiality reasons, the samples do not identify any places smaller than 100,000 inhabitants.

For more information, visit the IPUMS USA Web site.