Bridging the Gap, Elementary School Data (Food and Fitness Survey) (ICPSR 36356)

Version Date: Jan 15, 2018 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Frank J. Chaloupka, Univ of IL at Chicago, Bridging the Gap


Version V1

Slide tabs to view more

The Food and Fitness Survey is part of the larger Bridging the Gap (BTG) research program, which is a research initiative funded by the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. The primary goals of the Food and Fitness survey project were to obtain nationally representative information on school practices, and to obtain information about the association between district-level wellness policies and practices in those schools. Food and Fitness involved annual surveys of school-level respondents at elementary schools from the 2006-07 to the 2012-13 school years. This study contains data from these surveys for public and private elementary schools from the 2006-07 to the 2012-13 school years. Topics of the surveys include school characteristics, school meal options and prices, food advertisements in schools, food practices in classrooms and school functions, meal times during the day, physical education facilities and curriculum, methods of transportation to and from school, school wellness policies, school beverage guidelines, the "Nutritional Guidelines for Competitive Foods", school vending machines, and a la carte as well as school store food and beverage offerings.

Chaloupka, Frank J. Bridging the Gap, Elementary School Data (Food and Fitness Survey). Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2018-01-15.

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote
Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (Bridging the Gap)

census region

As explained in the ICPSR Processing Notes in the Codebook, ICPSR restricted some variables from general dissemination for reasons of confidentiality. Users interested in obtaining the restricted data must complete a restricted data use agreement with ICPSR, specify the reasons for the request, and obtain IRB approval or notice of exemption for their research. Apply for access to the restricted data via the ICPSR restricted data contract portal which can be accessed on the study home page.

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research

2006 -- 2013
2006 -- 2013
  1. The data files, setups and record layout files are encoded with the UTF-8 character encoding standard.

  2. For more information on the Bridging the Gap, Elementary School Data (Food and Fitness Survey), please visit the Bridging the Gap Web site.

For public schools, a two-stage selection approach was used, with a nationally-representative sample of districts selected first, followed by a sample of schools from within those districts. In Years 1-5 the sampling approach used a probability proportional to size (pps) method, switching to a stratified simple random sample (stsrs) for Years 6-8. The private school sample was drawn using a single stage probability proportional to size (pps) design in which the measure of size variable was the number of grade 3 students enrolled in the school.

Public and private elementary schools in the United States


Response rates vary annually.



2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Chaloupka, Frank J. Bridging the Gap, Elementary School Data (Food and Fitness Survey). ICPSR36356-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2018-01-15.

2018-01-15 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Nonresponse-adjusted data weights were calculated by the consultants at the Institute for Social Research. These calculations adjusted for potential differences in patterns of responding by schools with different demographic characteristics. The weights accounted for the following school characteristics: census region; urbanicity; percentage of white students; percentage of black students; percentage of Latino students; Title 1 eligibility; number of grade 3 students; region x percentage black students; and region x percentage Latino students.



  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.

  • One or more files in this data collection have special restrictions. Restricted data files are not available for direct download from the website; click on the Restricted Data button to learn more.