National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program

Monitoring the Future (MTF) Series

The Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of the Lifestyles and Values of Youth annual surveys were designed to explore changes in important values, behaviors, and lifestyle orientations of contemporary American youth. The surveys began in 1975 with 12th-grade students only. Eighth- and 10th-grade student surveys were added in 1991 under the title Monitoring the Future: A Continuing Study of American Youth (8th- and 10th-Grade Surveys) and, in 1996, the designation "12th-Grade Survey" was added to the titles of the subsequent 12th-grade surveys. When examining the issues covered by the series, two general types of tasks may be distinguished. The first task is to provide a systematic and accurate description of the youth population of interest in a given year and to quantify the direction and rate of change occurring over time. The second task, more analytic than descriptive, involves the explanation of the relationships and trends observed. Each year, large, distinct, nationally representative samples of 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-grade students in the United States are asked to respond to drug use and demographic questions, as well as to additional questions on a variety of subjects, including attitudes toward religion, parental influences, changing roles of women, educational aspirations, self-esteem, exposure to sex and drug education, and violence and crime - both in and out of school. In each grade, students are randomly assigned to complete questionnaires with a subset of topical questions in addition to a set of core questions on demographics and drug use. Each form of the questionnaire generates a corresponding data file. For a guide to the questions asked each year in each questionnaire, along with their subject areas and variable names, users may refer to the question indexes under the Reports & Related Sites link below.

For more information, visit the Monitoring the Future Web site.

Years Produced: Annually. Note: the 1975 data is not available.

Reports & Related Sites

Most Recent Studies

Related Publications ?

Most Recent Publications

2015
Embry, Venita,  Graham, Phillip,  Elek, Elvira,  Yaros, Anna,  Jones, Sarah,  Geercken, Gina . ADHS-BTCD Tobacco Study: Gap Analysis Report. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International.
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2015
Holdship, Deborah . Monitoring the Future. Michigan Today.
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2015
Miech, Richard A.,  Johnston, Lloyd,  O'Malley, Patrick M.,  Bachman, Jerald G.,  Schulenberg, John,  Patrick, Megan E. Trends in use of and attitudes toward marijuana among youth before and after decriminalization: The case of California 2007-2013. International Journal of Drug Policy.
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2015
Palamar, Joseph J.,  Acosta, Patricia . Synthetic cannabinoid use in a nationally representative sample of US high school seniors. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 194-202.
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2015
Palamar, Joseph J.,  Lee, Lily,  Weitzman, Michael . Prevalence and correlates of hashish use in a national sample of high school seniors in the United States. American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse.
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2015
Schaefer, Brian P.,  Vito, Anthony G.,  Marcum, Catherine D.,  Higgins, George E.,  Ricketts, Melissa L. Heroin use among adolescents: A multi-theoretical examination. Deviant Behavior. 36, (2), 101-112.
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2015
Vito, Anthony G.,  Schafer, Brian P.,  Higgins, George E.,  Marcum, Catherine D.,  Ricketts, Melissa L. Juvenile hallucinogen use: What do multiple theories say about it?. American Journal of Criminal Justice.
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2014
Arria, Amelia M.,  Bugbee, Brittany A.,  Caldeira, Kimberly M.,  Vincent, Kathryn B. Evidence and knowledge gaps for the association between energy drink use and high-risk behaviors among adolescents and young adults. Nutrition Reviews. 72, (S1), 87-97.
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2014
Biondo, Gabriella,  Chilcoat, Howard . Discrepancies in prevalence estimates in two national surveys for nonmedical use of a specific opioid product versus any prescription pain reliever. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 134, 396-400.
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Variables