Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the United States, 1997-2000 (ICPSR 3366)

Published: Mar 30, 2006 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Richard J. Estes, University of Pennsylvania, School of Social Work, Center for the Study of Youth Policy; Neil Alan Weiner, University of Pennsylvania, School of Social Work, Center for the Study of Youth Policy

https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03366.v1

Version V1

This project undertook the systematic collection of first-generation data concerning the nature, extent, and seriousness of child sexual exploitation (CSE) in the United States. The project was organized around the following research objectives: (1) identification of the nature, extent, and underlying causes of CSE and the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) occurring in the United States, (2) identification of those subgroups of children that were at the greatest risk of being sexually exploited, (3) identification of subgroups of adult perpetrators of sex crimes against children, and (4) identification of the modes of operation and other methods used by organized criminal units to recruit children into sexually exploitative activities. The study involved surveying senior staff members of nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and government organizations (GOs) in the United States known to be dealing with persons involved in the transnational trafficking of children for sexual purposes. Part 1 consists of survey data from nongovernment organizations. These were local child and family agencies serving runaway and homeless youth. Part 2 consists of survey data from government organizations. These organizations were divided into local, state, and federal agencies. Local organizations included municipal law enforcement, county law enforcement, prosecutors, public defenders, and corrections. State organizations included state child welfare directors, prosecutors, and public defenders. Federal organizations included the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Public Defenders, Immigration and Naturalization Service, United States Attorneys, United States Customs, and the United States Postal Service. Variables in Parts 1 and 2 include the organization's city, state, and ZIP code, the type of services provided or type of law enforcement agency, how the agency was funded, the scope of the agency's service area, how much emphasis was placed on CSEC as a policy issue or a service issue, conditions that might influence the number of CSEC cases, how staff were trained to deal with CSEC cases, how victims were identified, the number of children that experienced child abuse, sexual abuse, pornography, or other exploitation in 1999 and 2000 by age and gender, methods of recruitment, family history of victims, gang involvement, and substance abuse history of victims.

Estes, Richard J., and Weiner, Neil Alan. Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children in the United States, 1997-2000. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2006-03-30. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03366.v1

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United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (99-IJ-CX-0030)
1997 -- 2000
2000-04 -- 2000-12

(1) The data in this collection came from a larger project studying CSE and CSEC in the United States, Canada, and Mexico. ICPSR did not receive data pertaining to Canada or Mexico. (2) The principal investigators also used data from the NATIONAL INCIDENT-BASED REPORTING SYSTEM, 1998 (ICPSR 3031) and the UNIFORM CRIME REPORTS (UCR) AND FEDERAL INFORMATION PROCESSING STANDARDS (FIPS) STATE AND COUNTY GEOGRAPHIC CODES, 1990: UNITED STATES (ICPSR 2565) for this project. (3) The user guide, codebook, and data collection instruments are provided by ICPSR as Portable Document Format (PDF) files. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.

The benefits of economic globalization, internationalization, and free trade have brought with them an unanticipated set of social problems. Among them is what appears to be a dramatic rise worldwide in the incidence of child exploitation. Among the most virulent forms of this exploitation is child sexual exploitation (CSE), including the commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC). The extent of these problems in the United States has been unknown, although most experts dealing with CSEC regard it to be a serious problem in North America. This project undertook the systematic collection of first-generation data concerning the nature, extent, and seriousness of child sexual exploitation in the United States. The project was organized around the following research objectives: (1) identification of the nature, extent, and underlying causes of CSE and CSEC occurring in the United States, (2) identification of those subgroups of children that were at the greatest risk of being sexually exploited, (3) identification of subgroups of adult perpetrators of sex crimes against children, and (4) identification of the modes of operation and other methods used by organized criminal units to recruit children into sexually exploitative activities.

This study involved surveying senior staff members of nongovernment organizations (NGOs) and government organizations (GOs) in the United States known to be dealing with persons involved in the transnational trafficking of children for sexual purposes. Part 1 consists of survey data from nongovernment organizations. These were local child and family agencies serving runaway and homeless youth. Part 2 consists of survey data from government organizations. These organizations were divided into local, state, and federal agencies. Local organizations included municipal law enforcement, county law enforcement, prosecutors, public defenders, and corrections. State organizations included state child welfare directors, prosecutors, and public defenders. Federal organizations included the Federal Bureau of Investigation, Federal Public Defenders, Immigration and Naturalization Service, United States Attorneys, United States Customs, and the United States Postal Service. Surveys were originally mailed to the organizations. Researchers used additional mailings, telephone calls, and faxes to encourage responsiveness.

Stratified random sampling.

Government and nongovernment agencies in the United States that dealt with persons involved in the transnational trafficking of children for sexual purposes.

Organizations.

mailback questionnaires

survey data

Variables in Parts 1 and 2 include the organization's city, state, and ZIP code, the type of services provided or type of law enforcement agency, how the agency was funded, the scope of the agency's service area, how much emphasis was placed on CSEC as a policy issue or a service issue, conditions that might influence the number of CSEC cases, how staff were trained to deal with CSEC cases, how victims were identified, the number of children that experienced child abuse, sexual abuse, pornography, or other exploitation in 1999 and 2000 by age and gender, methods of recruitment, family history of victims, gang involvement, and substance abuse history of victims.

The response rate for Part 1 (nongovernmental organizations) was 22 percent. The response rate for Part 2 (governmental organizations) was 24 percent.

Several Likert-type scales were used.

2003-03-27

2006-03-30

2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Estes, Richard J., and Neil Alan Weiner. COMMERCIAL SEXUAL EXPLOITATION OF CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES, 1997-2000. ICPSR version. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania [producer], 2002. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2003. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03366.v1

2006-03-30 File UG3366.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.

2006-03-30 File CQ3366.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.

2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.

2003-03-27 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Notes

  • These data are part of NACJD's Fast Track Release and are distributed as they were received from the data depositor. The files have been zipped by NACJD for release, but not checked or processed except for the removal of direct identifiers. Users should refer to the accompanying readme file for a brief description of the files available with this collection and consult the investigator(s) if further information is needed.

  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.

  • The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented.
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This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.