United States Citizenship, Involvement, Democracy (CID) Survey, 2006 (ICPSR 4607)

Version Date: Oct 11, 2016 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Marc M. Howard, Georgetown University; James L. Gibson, Washington University in St. Louis; Dietlind Stolle, McGill University


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This data collection represents a loose collaboration between Georgetown University's Center for Democracy and Civil Society (CDACS) and the European Social Survey (ESS). The data in Part 1 are from the United States Citizenship, Involvement, Democracy (CID) Survey, which was conducted between mid-May and mid-July of 2005, and consists of in-person interviews with a representative sample of 1,001 Americans who responded to an 80-minute questionnaire. The CID survey is a study of American civic engagement, social capital, and democracy in comparative perspective, and it provides perspective on citizen participation in both the public and private realms. The CID survey is integrated with several elements of a module from the 2002 version of the ESS, which was administered in 22 European countries. In addition to the replicated questions from the ESS, the CID survey includes questions related to the themes of social capital, activities in formal clubs and organizations, informal social networks and activities, personal networks (strong and weak ties), the composition and diversity of ties and associations, trust (in other people, the community, institutions, and politicians), local democracy and participation, democratic values, political citizenship, social citizenship, views on immigration and diversity, political identification, ideology, mobilization and action, and tolerance (concerning views and attitudes, least-liked groups, and racial stereotypes).

In order to facilitate and encourage the common use of several key variables, and to help individual users to avoid having to create certain scales and indices, the data in Part 1, Citizenship, Involvement, Democracy Survey Data (US Only), also include the following constructed variables: generalized trust, political action, party identification, participation in voluntary organizations, citizenship norms, the diversity of social networks, racial prejudice/negative stereotypes, national pride, attitudes toward immigrants, and demographic factors.

The data in Part 2, 2002 European Social Survey (ESS) Data Integrated with US Data, comprise the responses from the 2002 ESS merged with the responses from the US CID, but only contains the questions common to both the US CID and the 2002 ESS (without any constructed variables). The central aim of the ESS is to measure and explain how people's social values, cultural norms, and behavior patterns are distributed, the way in which they differ within and between nations, and the direction and speed at which they are changing. Data collection for the ESS takes place every two years, by means of face-to-face interviews of around an hour in duration.

Demographic variables for Part 1 and Part 2 include race, gender, age, marital status, income, religious preference, and highest level of education.

Howard, Marc M., Gibson, James L., and Stolle, Dietlind. United States Citizenship, Involvement, Democracy (CID) Survey, 2006. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-10-11. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04607.v2

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abortion   associations   beliefs   citizen attitudes   citizen participation   citizenship   clubs   community involvement   community organizations   cultural diversity   cultural perceptions   democracy   economic behavior   education   employment   fear of crime   government   homosexuality   household composition   immigration   Internet   mass media   national identity   neighborhoods   neighbors   party identification   political action   political attitudes   political ideologies   political leaders   political organizations   political partisanship   political perceptions   prejudice   racial attitudes   racial discrimination   religion   social attitudes   social behavior   social networks   terrorism   tolerance   voting behavior   work attitudes   work environment   working hours


Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research

2006, 2002
2005-05 -- 2005-07 (Part 1: US CID survey, 2006), 2002 (Part 2: ESS survey)
  1. Data for Part 1 and Part 2 contain weight variables. Users are encouraged to read the original documentation provided by the Principal Investigators for a complete description of the weights used in Part 1. This is located in the appendix of the user guide. Users may obtain additional information about the weights used in Part 2 via the ESS Web site. Moreover, users may need to weight the data prior to analysis.

  2. Users may obtain additional information regarding the survey (including the original data collection instrument, information about sampling strategy, and general methodology) from the ESS Web site.


The study used a classic cluster sample design with an equal probability of selection method of sampling. Eligible respondents were household members, males or females, aged 18 years and older. Respondents were selected using the most recent birthday method. There was no substitution of respondents within households, and there was no substitution across households. The objective of this design was to provide an approximate self-weighting, or epsem, sample of households across the continental United States. The sample was designed specifically to represent the adult population residing in occupied residential housing units, and by definition excluded residents of institutions, group quarters, or those residing on military bases. Please see the user guide for additional information regarding the sampling design.

Adults, ages 18 and over, living in the contiguous United States.


The overall response rate was 40.03 percent.



2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Howard, Marc M., James L. Gibson, and Dietlind Stolle. United States Citizenship, Involvement, Democracy (CID) Survey, 2006. ICPSR04607-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-10-11. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04607.v2

2016-10-11 Added question text from the data collection instrument and corrected some small labeling errors in the data files. Released an R data file and added study to CivicLEADS archive.

2007-11-14 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Although the sample used in Part 1 was designed with an equal probability of selection method sampling, some variations exist (e.g., variations in primary stratum size) resulting in the need for some minor weighting adjustments to achieve equal representation across the sample. Complete weighting information for Part 1 is located in the user guide. Additional information about the weights used in Part 2 may be obtained via the ESS Web site.



  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.

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