United States Census of Manufactures, Blast Furnace Industry, 1929, 1931, 1933, 1935 (ICPSR 37208)

Version Date: Dec 10, 2018 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Timothy F. Bresnahan, Stanford University; Daniel M. G. Raff, University of Pennsylvania


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The United States Census Bureau has conducted surveys of manufacturing activity since 1810 with fluctuating frequency. Between 1919 and 1939 the Census of Manufactures (CM) was conducted biennially. This data collection consists of individual-plant data from the Census of Manufactures for 1929, 1931, 1933, and 1935, the only years in this span for which original returns are available. The records of the Blast Furnace Industry have been coded to produce an electronic dataset to provide the basis for microeconomic evidence for the study of the Great Depression. The dataset contains observations on blast furnace operations, steel plants (e.g. name, location, etc.), productivity, output, operation and working hours, employment, wages, operating costs and amount of materials used, machinery, and the effects of The Great Depression.

Bresnahan, Timothy F., and Raff, Daniel M. G. United States Census of Manufactures, Blast Furnace Industry, 1929, 1931, 1933, 1935. Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2018-12-10. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR37208.v1

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National Science Foundation (SES9023021), Institute for New Economic Thinking (INO11-00006)


Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research

1929, 1931, 1933, 1935
  1. For additional information on the United States Census of Manufactures, please visit the Economic Census and the Annual Survey of Manufactures websites.
  2. Some of the variables from this dataset may be included in ICPSR 37114 - United States Census of Manufactures, 1929-1935.


No sampling was applied. The universe of reporting firms is included in the dataset.

Time Series: Discrete

United States blast furnace industry plants

Blast furnace plant


2018-12-10 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.