Changing Patterns of Drug Abuse and Criminality Among Crack Cocaine Users in New York City, 1988-1989 (ICPSR 9670)

Version Date: Nov 4, 2005 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Jeffrey Fagan; Steven Belenko; Bruce D. Johnson

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This collection examines the characteristics of users and sellers of crack cocaine and the impact of users and sellers on the criminal justice system and on drug treatment and community programs. Information was also collected concerning users of drugs other than crack cocaine and the attributes of those users. Topics covered include initiation into substance use and sales, expenses for drug use, involvement with crime, sources of income, and primary substance of abuse. Demographic information includes subject's race, educational level, living area, social setting, employment status, occupation, marital status, number of children, place of birth, and date of birth. Information was also collected about the subject's parents: education level, occupation, and place of birth.

Fagan, Jeffrey, Belenko, Steven, and Johnson, Bruce D. Changing Patterns of Drug Abuse and Criminality Among Crack Cocaine Users in New York City, 1988-1989  . [distributor], 2005-11-04.

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United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (87-IJ-CX-0064)

1984-01 -- 1989-12
1988-06 -- 1989-08
  1. The codebook is provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.


Respondents were selected through police records and snowball sampling methods.

Residents of two New York City neighborhoods, some of whom had been arrested for drug offenses, some of whom used drugs but had eluded arrest, and some of whom were participating in drug treatment programs.

personal interviews



2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Fagan, Jeffrey, Steven Belenko, and Bruce D. Johnson. CHANGING PATTERNS OF DRUG ABUSE AND CRIMINALITY AMONG CRACK COCAINE USERS IN NEW YORK CITY, 1988-1989. New Brunswick, NJ: Jeffrey Fagan, Rutgers University/New York, NY: Steven Belenko, New York City Criminal Justice Agency/New York, NY: Bruce D. Johnson, Narcotic and Drug Research, Inc. [producers], 1989. 2nd ICPSR version. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2002.

2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.

2002-04-25 The data file was converted from card image to logical record length data format. SAS and SPSS data definition statements were created, and the codebook was converted to PDF format.

1992-01-10 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.

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This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.