Summary View help for Summary
The Young Children with Physical Disabilities Seattle, Washington study is one of the three projects in the Communication of People with MR, 2006 to 2012 Series, which focuses on identifying participant variables that predict success in increasing communication skills of individual with intellectual disabilities. The study data were collected to show that triadic eye gaze for joint attention can be established in very young children with moderate or severe motor impairments.
Dataset 1 contains 48 cases. Most cases include data on results of the Complexity of Communication Scale, a measure developed by the Communication of People with MR project. In addition, Dataset 1 contains data on a Functional Assessment, the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, the Mullen Scales of Early Learning and the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales.
Dataset 2 contains data on Triadic Eye Gaze and Coordinated Joint Attention. Participants for Dataset 2 were convenience sampled from birth-to-three centers in Seattle, Washington. There were 18 participants, children with severe physical disabilities between 10 and 24 months of age, who were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (a) an experimental treatment group ( n = 9) or (b) a control group ( n = 9).
Citation View help for Citation
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Geographic Coverage View help for Geographic Coverage
Restrictions View help for Restrictions
Public- and restricted-use versions of the data are included in this collection. For the public-use version of the data, certain identifying information in the downloadable version have been masked or edited to protect respondent privacy. For more information about the differences between the public- and the restricted-use versions of the data collection, please refer to the Codebook Notes section of the PDF Codebook. Users interested in obtaining the restricted-use version of the collection will need to complete a Restricted Data Use Agreement before they can obtain these data. Users can apply online for access to these data through the ICPSR restricted data contract portal. Please go to the "apply online for access to the data" link above to begin.
Distributor(s) View help for Distributor(s)
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Date of Collection View help for Date of Collection
Data Collection Notes View help for Data Collection Notes
Respondents in the public-use version have been de-identified by ICPSR staff. For details on the confidentiality measures taken to de-identify respondents, please see the codebook notes at the beginning of the codebook. To obtain the original demographic information data users may request access to the restricted-use data.
This study is one of the three projects in the Communication of People with MR, 2006 to 2012 Series. The other two studies in this series are:
- Language Development of Non-verbal Children Age 3 Years through 7 Years, 2007 to 2012 [Kansas City Metro Area] (ICPSR 36472)
- Requests for Assistance with Adaptive Switches from Individuals with Severe Communication Impairments, 2007 to 2012 [California, Kansas, and Washington] (ICPSR 36515)
This study used two scales. The Communication Complexity Scale, which was developed for the Communication of People with MR 2006 to 2012 series, and the Mullen Scales of Early Learning. For more information on the Communication Complexity Scale, see the following publication:
Brady, N., Fleming, K., Thiemann-Bourque, K., Olswang, L., Dowden, P., Saunders, M., and Marquis, J. (2012). Development of the Communication Complexity Scale. American Journal of Speech-Language Pathology, 21(1), 16-28.
Link to source: https://lsidata.ku.edu/ccs/index.php
Data users may find the following publication useful for interpreting the Triadic Eye Gaze and Coordinated Joint Attention variables:
Rutter, M., Bailey, A., Berument, S. K., Lecouteur, A., and Lord, C. (2003). Social Communication Questionnaire. Los Angeles, CA: Western Psychological Services.
Study Design View help for Study Design
The Data collected for Dataset 2 had a randomized, controlled design, in which children with severe physical disabilities between 10 and 24 months of age were randomly assigned to one of two groups: (a) an experimental treatment group (n = 9) or (b) a control group (n = 9). All Participants were considered good candidates for learning Triadic Gaze as a conventional and reliable communication signal. Children were referred by birth-to-three centers in the Seattle area and recruited with the approval of the University of Washington's institutional review board and parental consent. In accordance with institutional review board requirements, caregivers were informed at the time of consent that participation in this research would not affect their current birth-to-three services in any way. Children in the experimental group received direct treatment for Triadic Gaze delivered by a research Speech-Language Pathologist in addition to standard practice (treatment provided by their birth-to-three center service providers). Children in the control group received only standard practice sessions. Children in both groups were observed in a play activity with an examiner approximately every 3 weeks to monitor Triadic Gaze learning.
Sample View help for Sample
Candidates were identified for directed eye gaze intervention. The target population was infants 10-36 months of age with moderate-to-severe motor impairments who were nonverbal and not yet producing intentional communication signals.
More specifically, participants for Dataset 2 were recruited as follows:
Forty-six children were recruited from seven birth-to-three centers in the Seattle, WA, area. Twenty-two children qualified for enrollment based on the following six criteria: (a) age between 10 and 24 months at time of consent; (b) severe motor delay as measured by a score of greater than of equal to 2 standard deviations below the mean on either the Fine Motor or Gross Motor Subscales of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development, Third Edition; (c) adequate vision measured by passing five of the first seven items on the Visual Reception Subtest from the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL); (d) adequate hearing judged by passing four of the first six items on the Receptive Language Subtest of the MSEL, coupled with behavioral observation consistent with functional hearing; (e) interest in toys and people, as revealed through change in muscle tone, facial expression, vocalization, and/or direction of gaze; and (f) demonstrating greater than 80 percent dyadic gaze (sustained gaze to adult or object), less than 20 percent Triadic Gaze, and no manifestations of symbolic communication (e.g., words, signs) during the baseline measurement session. Three participants withdrew after consent and completion of eligibility assessments. The remaining children who met enrollment criteria were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 10) or control (n = 9) group. One participant allocated to the experimental group was dropped from the study because of frequent cancellations. Thus, final groups consisted of nine experimental and nine control participants.
Time Method View help for Time Method
Universe View help for Universe
infants 10-36 months of age with moderate-to-severe motor impairments who are nonverbal and not yet producing intentional communication signals
Unit(s) of Observation View help for Unit(s) of Observation
Data Type(s) View help for Data Type(s)
Mode of Data Collection View help for Mode of Data Collection
Presence of Common Scales View help for Presence of Common Scales
- Communication Complexity Scale
- Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development
- Mullen Scales of Early Learning
- Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales (CSBS)
Original Release Date View help for Original Release Date
Version History View help for Version History
- Brady, Nancy. Young Children with Physical Disabilities, 2007 to 2012 [Seattle, Washington]. ICPSR36516-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-10-25. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR36516.v1
2016-10-25 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
- Standardized missing values.
- Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.