Abramson, Paul R., John H. Aldrich, and David W. Rhode. 2003. Change and Continuity in the 2000 and 2002 Elections. Washington: CQ Press.

Alverez, R. Michael. 1998. Information and Elections. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Black, Earl, and Merle Black. 1992. The Vital South. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Burnham, Walter Dean. 1970. Critical Elections and the Mainspring of American Politics. New York: W.W. Norton

Campbell, Angus, Philip E. Converse, Warren E. Miller, and Donald E. Stokes. 1960. The American Voter. New York: John Wiley.

Fiorina, Morris P. 1981. Retrospective Voting in American National Elections. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Kiewiet, D. Roderick. 1983. Macroeconomics and Micropolitics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Ladd, Everett Carll, Jr., and Charles D. Hadley. 1978. Transformations of the American Party System, 2nd ed. New York: Norton.

Layman, Geoffrey. 2001. The Great Divide: Religion and Cultural Conflict in American Party Politics. New York: Columbia University Press.

Lublin, David. 2004. The Republican South. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Merrill, Samuel III, and Bernard Grofman. 1999. A Unified Theory of Voting. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Miller, Warren E., and J. Merrill Shanks. 1996. The New American Voter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Mueller, Carol M., ed. 1988. The Politics of the Gender Gap. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Nie, Norman H., Sidney Verba, and John R. Petrocik. 1976. The Changing American Voter. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Page, Benjamin I. 1978. Choices and Echoes in Presidential Elections. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Seltzer, Richard A., Jody Newman, and Melissa Voorhees Leighton. 1997. Sex as a Political Variable. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner.

Sundquist, James L. 1983. The Dynamics of the Party System, rev. ed. Washington: The Brookings Institution.

Wald, Kenneth D. 1987. Religion and Politics in the United States. New York: St. Martin's Press.

The 2004 Election

Andrews, Edmund. 2004. "Tough Issues, Awaiting Their Turn." New York Times, 13 April, E1.

Archibald, Randal C., and Raymond Hernandez. 2004. "For Cheney and Edwards, It's Now a Running Debate." New York Times, 7 October, A25.

Balz, Dan, and Thomas B. Edsall. 2004. "Unprecedented Efforts to Mobilize Voters Begin." Washington Post, 1 November, A1.

Barringer, Felicity. 2004. "Bush Record: New Priorities in Environment." New York Times, 14 September, A18.

Bennet, James. 2004. "Rivals' Foreign Policy Stands Show Few Clear Distinctions." New York Times, 30 September, A1.

Bennet, James, and Jim Rutenberg. 2004. "A Television Event that Delivered High Drama and Garnered High Ratings." New York Times, 15 October, A22.

Brinkley, Joel. 2004. "Out of Spotlight, Bush Overhauls U.S. Regulations." New York Times, 14 August, A10.

Burden, Barry C. 2005. "The Nominations: Technology, Money, and Transferable Momentum." In The Elections of 2004, edited by Michael Nelson. Washington, DC: CQ Press.

Ceaser, James W., and Andrew E. Busch. 2005. Red Over Blue. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Ceaser, James W., and Andrew E. Busch. 2001. The Perfect Tie. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Connelly, Ceci, and Jonathan Weisman. 2004. "Health Care vs. Tax Cuts." Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 12-18 July.

Fessenden, Ford. 2004. "Both Parties See a Big Increase in New Voters." New York Times, 26 September, A1.

Frankel, Jeffrey. 2004. "It's Tough to Create Jobs." Washington Post National Weekly Edition, 19-25 April, 23.

Gallup Organization. 2005. "Presidential Ratings-Job Approval." Gallup Poll News Reports. Accessed at on 11 April.

Kerry, John. 2004. Issues. John Kerry for President website. Accessed on Sept. 22 at:

Morin, Richard, and Dan Balz. 2004. "Bush Retains a Slim Lead in Poll." Washington Post, 19 October, A1.

Nagourney, Adam. 2004. "Polls Show Some Gains for Kerry, but Race Is Tight." New York Times, 3 August, A1.

Pew Research Center. 2004. "Race Tightens Again, Kerry's Image Improves." News Release, 20 October. Accessed at

Pomper, Gerald M. 2004. "The Presidential Election: The Ills of American Politics After 9/11." In The Elections of 2004, edited by Michael Nelson. Washington:DC: CQ Press.

Rosenbaum, David E. 2004. "Where They Stand, What They've Done." New York Times, 26 October, A8.

Sabato, Larry J. 2005. "The George W. Bush Midterm: From Popular-Vote Loser to Political Colossus in Two Non-so-Easy Steps." In Midterm Madness: The Elections of 2002, edited by Larry J. Sabato. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Stevenson, Richard W. 2004. "Aggressively Pursuing a 'Pro-Growth' Philosophy Nurtured in the Texas Oil Fields." New York Times, 8 October, A18.

Stevenson, Richard W., and Janet Elder. 2004. "Poll Finds Kerry Assured Voters in Initial Debate." New York Times, 5 October, A1.

Toner, Robin. 2004. "Biggest Divide? Maybe Its Health Care." New York Times, 14 May, A16.

Wisconsin Advertising Project. 2005. "The New York Times' graphics of our 2004 presidential election findings (11/01/04)." Accessed at on 22 July.