Why and how should I cite data?

Proper citation ensures that research data can be: discovered; reused; replicated for verification; credited for recognition; and tracked to measure usage and impact.

Citing data is straightforward. Each citation must include the basic elements that allow a unique dataset to be identified over time:


Here are some examples of ICPSR data citations:

Barnes, Samuel H. Italian Mass Election Survey, 1968. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1992-02-16. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07953.v1

Schneider, Barbara, and Waite, Linda J. The 500 Family Study [1998-2000: United States]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-06-03. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04549.v1

Federal Judicial Center. Judicial District Data Book, 1983: [United States]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2006-01-18. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR08439.v1

For more information, see ICPSR's Citing Data web page.