Citing Data

Proper citation ensures that research data can be: discovered; reused; replicated for verification; credited for recognition; and tracked to measure usage and impact.

How to Cite Data

Citing data is straightforward. Each citation must include the basic elements that allow a unique dataset to be identified over time:

  • Title
  • Author
  • Date
  • Version
  • Persistent identifier (such as the Digital Object Identifier, Uniform Resource Name URN, or Handle System)

Here are some examples:

Deschenes, Elizabeth Piper, Susan Turner, and Joan Petersilia. Intensive Community Supervision in Minnesota, 1990-1992: A Dual Experiment in Prison Diversion and Enhanced Supervised Release. ICPSR06849-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2000. doi:10.3886/ICPSR06849

Esther Duflo; Rohini Pande, 2006, "Dams, Poverty, Public Goods and Malaria Incidence in India", UNF:5:obNHHq1gtV400a4T+Xrp9g== Murray Research Archive [Distributor] V2 [Version]

Sidlauskas B (2007) Data from: Testing for unequal rates of morphological diversification in the absence of a detailed phylogeny: a case study From characiform fishes. Dryad Digital Repository. doi:10.5061/dryad.20

In addition to the above basic elements, we also recommend the addition of fixity information, such as a checksum or Universal Numeric Fingerprint, which enables verification that data used later matches data originally cited.

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