Citing Data

Proper citation ensures that research data can be: discovered; reused; replicated for verification; credited for recognition; and tracked to measure usage and impact.

How to Cite Data

Citing data is straightforward. Each citation must include the basic elements that allow a unique dataset to be identified over time:

  • Author
  • Title
  • Distributor
  • Date
  • Version
  • Persistent identifier (such as the Digital Object Identifier, Uniform Resource Name URN, or Handle System)

Here are some examples:

Barnes, Samuel H. Italian Mass Election Survey, 1968. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1992-02-16. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07953.v1

Schneider, Barbara, and Waite, Linda J. The 500 Family Study [1998-2000: United States]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-06-03. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04549.v1

Federal Judicial Center. Judicial District Data Book, 1983: [United States]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2006-01-18. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR08439.v1

Where do I find the citation?

Citations for ICPSR data can be found in the following locations:

  1. Study descriptions that appear on the website
  2. File manifest
  3. PDF study description file

Both the file manifest and the PDF study description file are automatically included with every download. Thus, every download is accompanied by a copy of the standard citation that can be copied and pasted with ease.

How can I let ICPSR know about my publication?

Users of ICPSR data are required to send us bibliographic citations for each completed manuscript or thesis abstract. This allows us to provide funding agencies with essential information about use of archival resources and facilitates the exchange of information about the research activities of principal investigators.

Email bibliography@icpsr.umich.edu to submit citations for inclusion in our Bibliography.

Related Resources