NAHDAP Data in Infographics

About the Infographics

Drug & Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2017 (September 2018)

Source:

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services

Data:

Monitoring the Future (MTF)

Description:

  • Figure 1: Marijuana use is lower in college students than in their non-college peers
    • Daily marijuana use continues to rise for non-college young adults
    • In the past five years, daily marijuana use has continued to rise for non-college young adults, reaching its highest level in 2017 at 13.2%.
      • Daily use is almost three times higher in the non-college group.
    • Daily use is defined as use on 20 or more occasions in the past 30 days.
  • Figure 2: Vaping marijuana appears lower in college students than in non-college peers
    • Vaped marijuana – past-month use
      • College: 5.2%
      • Non-college: 7.8%
  • Nicotine use is lower in college students than in their non-college peers
    • Largest differences for annual, past-month, and daily use rates between college and non-college groups are for cigarette smoking
      • Figure 3: Cigarettes – daily use
        • College: 2.0%
        • Non-college: 14.4%
    • Vaping nicotine appears higher among non-college groups
      • Figure 4: E-vaporizers with nicotine – Past-month use
        • College: 6.0%
        • Non-college: 7.9%
  • Use of synthetic drugs is lower in college students than in their non-college peers
    • Figure 5: Synthetic cannabinoids (K2/Spice) – Past-year use
      • College: 0.5%
      • Non-college: 2.4%
    • Figure 6: Synthetic cathinones (bath salts) – Past-year use
      • College: 1.2%
      • Non-college: 1.5%
  • Alcohol use in college students is higher than in their non-college peers
    • Figure 7: Alcohol use – Past month
      • College: 62%
      • Non-college: 56.4%
    • Figure 8: Alcohol mixed with energy drinks* – Past year
      • College: 31.5%
      • Non-college: 26.7%
      • *College students appear to mix alcohol with their energy drinks more than the non-college group
  • Past-year misuse of Vicodin has dropped dramatically since 2009 in both groups
    • Figure 9: 2017 Monitoring the Future College Students and Young Adults Survey Results
      • Line graph depicts decreasing rates of Vicodin misuse among two groups from 2009 to 2017. Non-college usage dropped from 11.2% to 1.8 percent; college usage dropped from 8.4% to 1.1%.

Subject Terms:

teenagers drug abuse alcohol marijuana opioids medication abuse

Monitoring the Future 2017 Survey Results (Dec 2017)

Source:

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Data:

Monitoring the Future (MTF)

Description

  • Monitoring the Future is an annual survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders conducted by researchers at the Institute for Social Research at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, under a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, part of the National Institutes of Health. Since 1975, the survey has measured how teens report their drug and alcohol use and related attitudes in 12th graders nationwide; 8th and 10th graders were added to the survey in 1991.
  • 43,703 students from 360 public and private schools participates in the 2017 survey.
  • Figure 1: Daily Marijuana Use Mostly steady
    • From 2007 to 2017, daily marijuana use was mostly steady among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders.
    • In 2017, daily marijuana use for each grade was:
      8th grade: 0.8%
      10th grade: 2.9%
      12th grade: 5.9%
      71.0 percent of high school seniors do not view regular marijuana smoking as being harmful, but 64.7 percent say they disapprove of regular marijuana smoking.
  • Figure 2: Binge Drinking Rates Steady after Decades of Decline.
    • Since 1992, binge drinking (five or more drinks in a row in the last 2 weeks) appears to have leveled off this year, but is significantly lower than peak years.
    • Peak years for binge drinking for each grade:
      8th grade: 1996 (13.3%)
      10th grade: 2000 (24.1%)
      12th grade 1998 (31.5%)
    • In 2017, binge drinking rates for each grade:
      8th grade: 3.7%
      10th grade: 9.8%
      12th graders: 16.6%
  • Figure 3: Past-Year E-Vaporizer Use and What Teens are Inhaling
    • Nearly 1 in 3 students in 12th grade report past-year use of e-vaporizers in 2017, raising concerns about the impact on their long-term health.
    • In 2017, past-year use for each grade:
      8th grade: 13.3%
      10th grade: 23.9%
      12th grade: 27.8%
    • The survey also asked students what they thought was in the e-vaporizer mist the last time they smoked. These were their responses:
      • Nicotine:
        8th grade: 25.1%
        10th grade: 32.8%
        12th grade: 11.1%
      • Marijuana or hash oil:
        8th grade: 8.9%
        10th grade: 10.7%
        12th grade: 11.1%
      • Just flavoring:
        8th grade: 74.8%
        10th grade: 59.2
        12th grade: 51.8%
      • Other:
        8th grade: 0.2%
        10th grade: 0.5%
        12th grade: 0.7%
      • Don't know:
        8th grade: 6.1%
        10th grade: 4.6 %
        12th grade: 3.7%
  • Figure 4: Teens More Likely to Use Marijuana Than Cigarettes
    • Since 1992, there has been a significant decline in daily cigarette use among 12th graders, while the rate of daily marijuana use has increased. In its peak year (1997), daily cigarette use among 12th grades was 24.6 percent, compared to a rate of 4.2 percent in 2017. In its lowest year of use (1992), daily use of marijuana among 12th graders was 1.9 percent, compared to a rate of 5.9 percent in 2017.
  • Figure 5: Prescription/Over-the-Counter versus Illicit Drugs
    • Past-year misuse of Vicodin among 12th graders has dropped dramatically in the past 15 years, from 9.6 percent in 2002 to 2.0 percent in 2017. So has misuse of all prescription opioids among 12th graders despite high opioid overdose rates among adults.
    • Past-year misuse of prescription/OTC drugs among 12th graders in 2017 were:
      Adderall: 5.5%
      Tranquilizers: 4.7%
      Opioids other than heroin: 4.2%
      Cough/cold medicine: 3.2%
      Sedatives: 2.9%
      Ritalin®: 1.3%
    • Past-year use of illicit drugs among 12th graders in 2017 were:
      Marijuana/hashish: 37.1%
      Synthetic cannabinoids*: 3.7%
      LSD: 3.3%
      Cocaine: 2.7%
      MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly): 2.6%
      Inhalants: 1.5%
      Heroin: 0.4%
    • Students Report Lowest Rates Since Start of the Survey Across all grades, past-year use of heroin, methamphetamine, cigarettes, and synthetic cannabinoids* are at their lowest by many measures. (*called "synthetic marijuana" in survey)

Subject Terms:

teenagers drug abuse alcohol marijuana opioids medication abuse

Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2016 (Sep 2017)

Source:

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Data:

Monitoring the Future (MTF)

Description:

2016 Monitoring the Future College Students and Young Adults Survey Results

  • First Figure: Marijuana Use Among this Age Group Remains a Concern
    • Daily marijuana use is at the highest level since the early 1980s for this age group, with 4.9 percent of college students and 12.8 percent of non-college peers reporting daily use.
  • Second Figure: Heavy Alcohol Use Appears to be Higher in College Students than Non-College Peers
    • Binge drinking (five or more drinks in a row): 32.4 percent of college students and 28.7 percent of non-college peers in the past 2 weeks.
    • Intoxication (having been drunk): 40.8 percent of college students and 30.4 percent of non-college peers in the past month.
  • Third Figure: Nicotine Use is Generally Lower in College Students
  • Cigarettes (past-month use): 8.9 percent of college students and 18.8 percent of non-college peers.
  • E-vaporizers* (past-month use): 6.9 percent of college students and 9 percent of non-college peers.
    • *E-vaporizers may include nicotine, other drugs or no drug at all (i.e., flavoring only).
  • Hookah (past-year use): Past-year hookah use is lower among college students, with 16.9 percent of college students and 19.8 percent of their non-college peers using hookah. In the past five years, hookah use is trending down in college students. In 2011, past-year hookah use was 27.9 percent and fell to 16.9 percent in 2016.
  • Fourth Figure: Amphetamine Misuse Appears to be Higher in College Students than Non-College Peers
    • College students appear to have higher rates of amphetamine misuse, highlighting the trend of using these drugs to increase academic performance. However, there is no evidence that these substances increase performance long-term. Past-year use of Ritalin was 2.4% in college students and 1.6% in non-college peers. 9.9 percent of college students reported past-year use of Adderall compared to 6.2% of their non-college peers.

Subject Terms:

young adults drug abuse marijuana alcohol nicotine medication abuse

Flint Youth Injury Study Young Adults

Source:

Open Data Flint, ICPSR

Data:

Flint Youth Injury Study

Description:

  • 74% of youth and young adults report having at least one mentor to turn to if making an important decision
  • 3 listed age groups: 14-17 year olds, 18-29 year olds, and 21-24 year olds

Subject Terms:

teenagers young adults

The Opioid Epidemic By the Numbers

Source:

U.S. Department of Health & Human Services

Data:

National Survey on Drug Use and Health (2016)

Description:

In 2016…

  • 116 people died every day from opioid-related drug overdoses
  • 11.5 million people misused prescription opioids
  • 42,249 people died from overdosing on opioids
  • 2.1 million people misused prescription opioids for the first time
  • 2.1 million people had an opioid use disorder
  • 17,087 deaths attributed to overdosing on commonly prescribed opioids
  • 948,000 people used heroin
  • 19,413 deaths attributed to overdosing on synthetic opioids other than methadone
  • 170,000 people used heroin for the first time
  • 15,469 deaths attributed to overdosing on heroin
  • 504 billion in economic costs

Subject Terms:

drug addiction drug abuse opioids

Monitoring the Future 2016 Survey Results (Dec 2016)

Source:

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Data:

Monitoring the Future (MTF)

Description:

  • Monitoring the Future is an annual survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders conducted by researchers at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, under a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, part of the National Institutes of Health. Since 1975, the survey has measured drug, alcohol, and cigarette use and related attitudes in 12th graders nationwide; 8th and 10th graders were added to the survey in 1991.
  • 45,473 students from 372 public and private schools participated in the 2016 survey.
  • Figure 1: Past-Month Marijuana Use Mostly Steady
  • From 1996 to 2016, past-month marijuana use was mostly steady among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders.
    • In 2016, past-month use for each grade was:
      12th grade: 22.5%
      10th grade: 14.0%
      8th grade: 5.4%
    • 68.9 percent of high school seniors do not view regular marijuana smoking as harmful, but 68.5 percent say they disapprove of regular marijuana smoking.
  • Figure 2: Past-Month Alcohol Use Continues Steady Decline
  • From 1996 to 2016, there was a steady decline in past-month alcohol use among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders.
    • In 2016, past-month use for each grade was:
      12th grade: 33.2%
      10th grade: 19.9%
      8th grade: 7.3%
  • Figure 3: Past-Month Cigarette Use Continues Steady Decline
    From 1996 to 2016, there was a steady decline in past-month cigarette use among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders.
    • In 2016, past-month use for each grade was:
    • 12th grade: 10.5%
    • 10th grade: 4.9%
    • 8th grade: 2.6%
  • Figure 4: Teens More Likely to Use E-Cigarettes than Cigarettes
    • Past-month e-cigarette versus cigarette use for each grade was:
    • 8th grade:
      • cigarette use: 2.6%
      • e-cigarette use: 6.2%
    • 10th grade:
      • cigarette use: 4.9%
      • e-cigarette use: 11.0%
    • 12th grade:
      • cigarette use: 10.5%
      • e-cigarette use: 12.5%
    • What did 12th graders think was in the mist they inhaled from an e-cigarette?
      • 62.8 percent thought they were inhaling flavoring.
      • 24.9 percent thought they were inhaling nicotine.
      • 6.8 percent thought they were inhaling marijuana or hash oil.
      • 5.6 percent said they didn't know what they were inhaling.
    • Despite the belief that the liquid used in e-cigs contains only flavoring, it also might contain nicotine.
  • Figure 5: Prescription/Over-the-Counter vs. Illicit Drugs
    • Past-year misuse of Vicodin among 12th graders has dropped dramatically in the past 5 years, from 7.5 percent in 2012 to 2.9 percent in 2016. So has misuse of all prescription opioids among 12th graders despite high opioid overdose rates among adults.
    • Past-year misuse of prescription/OTC drugs among 12th graders in 2016 were:
      • amphetamines: 6.7%
      • tranquilizers: 4.9%
      • opioids other than heroin: 4.8%
      • cough medicine: 4.0%
      • sedatives: 3.0%
    • Past-year use of illicit drugs among 12th graders in 2016 were:
      • marijuana/hash: 35.6%
      • hallucinogens: 4.3%
      • synthetic marijuana: 3.5%
      • MDMA (Ecstasy): 2.7%
      • cocaine (any form): 2.3%
      • salvia: 1.8%
      • inhalants: 1.7%
  • Students Report Lowest Rates Since Start of the Survey
    • Across all grades, past-year use of inhalants, heroin, methamphetamine, alcohol, cigarettes, and synthetic cannabinoids are at their lowest by many measures.

Subject Terms:

teenagers drug abuse alcohol marijuana nicotine medication abuse

Substance Use in the United States

Source:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Data:

Data: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series

Description:

Behavioral health issues affect millions of adolescents and adults in the United States.

  • Tobacco Use – Ages 12 and Older
    • 2014
      • 66.9 million current tobacco users
      • 55.2 million cigarette smokers
      • 11.7 million users of other tobacco products
    • Youth cigarette use cut in half in the last 10 years
    • Cigarette use by 12 to 17-year-olds declined from 13% in 2002 to 5% in 2014
  • Illicit Drug Use – Ages 12 and Older
    • 27.0 million people, or 1 in 10 Americans, used an illicit substance in the past 30 days
      • This percentage in 2014 was higher than those in every year from 2002 through 2013
    • Usage in 2014:
      • 4.3 million nonmedical pain reliever users
      • 22.2 million marijuana users
    • About 435,000 Americans aged 12 and older were current heroin users in 2014
  • Underage and Binge Drinking – Ages 12-20
    • Figure 1: Underage alcohol use ages 12-20:
      • 28.8% in 2002
      • 22.8% in 2014
    • Figure 2:
      • Underage drinkers: 1 in 5
      • Underage binge drinkers: 1 in 7
        • Binge alcohol use is defined as drinking five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least 1 day in the past 30 days
      • These percentages were lower than the percentages in 2002 to 2012, but they were similar to the percentages in 2013
    • Treatment Gap – Ages 12 and Older
      • Of the estimated 22.5 million people aged 12 or older in 2014 who needed treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol use problem in the past year, only 2.6 million persons received treatment at a specialty facility.

Subject Terms:

drug abuse alcohol nicotine opioids marijuana

Drug and Alcohol Use in College-Age Adults in 2015 (Nov 2016)

Source:

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Data:

Monitoring the Future (MTF)

Description:

2015 Monitoring the Future College Students and Adults Survey Results

  • First Figure: Marijuana Use Among Full-Time College Students Remains a Concern.
    • Daily marijuana use has steadily increased among college students in the past two decades with 3.7 percent smoking marijuana daily in 1995, 4.0 percent in 2005, and 4.6 percent in 2015.
  • Second Figure: Heavy Alcohol Use Higher in College Students than Non-College Peers.
    • Binge drinking (five or more drinks in a row): 31.9 percent of college students and 23.7 percent of non-college peers in the past 2 weeks.
    • Intoxication (having been drunk): 38.4 percent of college students and 24.9 percent of non-college peers in the past month.
  • Third Figure: Nicotine Use Different in College Students and Non-College Peers.
    • Hookah (past-year use): Past-year hookah use is similar in college students and non-college peers but trending down in college students: 23.4 percent of college students and 24.5 percent of non-college peers used a hookah in 2015; among college students, past-year hookah use was 27.9 percent in 2011 and fell to 23.4 percent in 2015.
    • Cigarettes (past-month use): 11.3 percent of college students and 23.4 percent of non-college peers; note that this is a record low for past-month cigarette use among college students.
    • E-cigarettes (past-month use): 8.8 percent of college students and 12.9 percent of non-college peers.
  • Fourth Figure: Cocaine Use in Full-Time College Students Is Concerning.
    • After falling steadily for 6 years, past-year cocaine use jumped above 4 percent in 2014 and remained high in 2015; past-year use was 5.1 percent in 2006, 5.4 percent in 2007, 4.4 percent in 2008, 4.2 percent in 2009, 3.5 percent in 2010, 3.3 percent in 2011, 3.1 percent in 2012, 2.7 percent in 2013, 4.4 percent in 2014, and 4.3 percent in 2015.
  • Fifth Figure: Popularity of Certain Drugs Fell Quickly Among Full-Time College Students
    • Past-year use of synthetic marijuana fell 80 percent between 2011 and 2015.
    • Past-year use of salvia fell 90 percent between 2009 and 2015.

Subject Terms:

young adults drug abuse alcohol

Current cigarette smoking among adults by educational attainment (2016)

Source:

Healthypeople.gov

Data:

National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)

Description:

Among adults aged 25 years and over, age-adjusted rates of current cigarette smoking decreased with increasing educational attainment in 2016.

  • Less than high school: 26.0%
  • High school: 23.6%
  • Some college: 19.1%
  • Associate’s degree: 16.5%
  • 4-year college degree: 7.8%
  • Advanced degree: 4.4%

Subject Terms:

nicotine

The Top 5 Deadliest Drugs in the United States (2016)

Source:

DrugAbuse.com

Data:

Data: Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) Series

Description:

The United States has the highest drug-related mortality rate in the world, nearly 5 times the global average. It’s no surprise that drug use can turn lethal, but it may shock you how many of the top 5 deadliest drugs in the U.S. are actually legal.

  • Tobacco
    • 6 million people in the world die each year due to tobacco use or exposure to tobacco smoke.
    • 1 in 5 deaths in the U.S. is due to cigarette smoking.
    • If youth smoking rates in the U.S. remain steady, 5.6 million of the population younger than 18 will die due to smoking-related illness.
    • Smoking is linked to: heart disease, lung disease, stroke, diabetes, tuberculosis, immune system problems, cardiovascular diseases, cancer.
  • Alcohol
    • Drinking kills nearly 88,000 people annually in the United States.
    • 6% of all worldwide deaths in 2012 were due to alcohol consumption.
    • 31% of driving fatalities in 2014 involved a drunk driver.
    • Alcohol is associated with: liver disease, pancreatic disease, liver cirrhosis, heart disease, numerous forms of cancer.
  • Prescription Opioids
    • Heroin and painkillers are both opioids with similar effects; however, there were twice as many deaths from painkiller overdose as from heroin overdose in 2014.
    • 4x more prescription opioid overdose deaths occurred in 2014 compared to 1999.
    • The majority of current heroin users misused prescription opioids before turning to heroin.
  • Heroin
    • 10,000+ people in the U.S. died of heroin overdose in 2014.
    • 26% increase in deaths due to heroin overdose reported in the U.S. between 2013 and 2014.
    • In 2011, 20.6% of illicit substance-related emergency room visits involved heroin.
  • Cocaine
    • 5,414 cocaine overdose deaths were recorded in the U.S. in 2014.
    • 40% of illicit drug-related emergency room visits in 2011 were due to cocaine.
    • Cocaine has been linked to: heart attack, seizure, stroke, irregular heartbeat, coma.

Subject Terms:

nicotine alchohol medication abuse opioids drug abuse

Abuse of Prescription (Rx) Drugs Affects Young Adults Most (Feb 2016)

Source:

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Data:

Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS)

Description:

  • Young adults (age 18 to 25) are the biggest abusers of prescription (Rx) opioid pain relievers, ADHD stimulants, and anti-anxiety drugs. They do it for all kinds of reasons, including to get high or because they think Rx stimulants will help them study better. But Rx abuse is dangerous. In 2014, more than 1,700 young adults died from prescription drug (mainly opioid) overdoses-more than died from overdoses of any other drug, including heroin and cocaine combined-and many more needed emergency treatment.
  • Top Graph: The nonmedical use of prescription drugs is highest among young adults. Past year nonmedical use of prescription drugs is shown on a bar chart by age group. Six percent of 12- to 17- year-olds, 12 percent of 18- to 25- year-olds, and 5 percent of persons age 26 or older, used prescription drugs non-medically in the past year.
  • Middle Graph: More than 1,700 young adults died from Rx drug overdose in 2014 - a 4-fold increase from 1999 - that's nearly 5 persons per day. A line graph shows prescription-drug-related overdose deaths increasing among persons ages 18- to 25- years-old from 418 deaths in 1999 to 1,741 deaths in 2014.
  • Bottom Figure: Among young adults, for every death due to Rx drug overdose, there were 22 treatment admissions6 and 119 emergency room visits.

Subject Terms:

young adults opioids drug abuse medication abuse drug addiction

Teens and E-cigarettes (Feb 2016)

Source:

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Data:

Monitoring the Future (MTF)

Description:

  • Figure 1: Teens are more likely to use e-cigarettes than cigarettes.
    Past-month use of cigarettes was 3.6 percent among 8th graders, 6.3 percent among 10th graders, and 11.4 percent among 12th graders. Past-month use of e-cigarettes was 9.5 percent among 8th graders, 14.0 percent among 10th graders, and 16.2 percent among 12 graders.
    • Two times as many boys use e-cigs as girls.
  • Figure 2: Teen e-cig users are more likely to start smoking.
    30.7 percent of e-cig users started smoking within 6 months while 8.1 percent of non-users started smoking. Smoking includes combustible tobacco products (cigarettes, cigars, and hookahs).
  • Figure 3: What do teens say is in their e-cig?
    66.0 percent say just flavoring, 13.7 percent don't know, 13.2 percent say nicotine, 5.8 percent say marijuana, and 1.3 percent say other. Manufacturers don't have to report e-cig ingredients, so users don't know what's actually in them.
  • Figure 4: High teen exposure to e-cig advertising
    7 in 10 teens are exposed to e-cig ads.
    • Among middle school students, 52.8 percent are exposed to retail ads, 35.8 percent to internet ads, 34.1 percent to TV and movie ads, and 25.0 percent to newspaper and magazine ads. Among high school students, 56.3 percent are exposed to retail ads, 42.9 percent to internet ads, 38.4 percent to TV and movie ads, and 34.6 percent to newspaper and magazine ads.

Subject Terms:

teenagers nicotine electronic cigarettes

Mental Health in the United States

Source:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Data:

National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series

Description:

  • Mental Illness
    • About 1 in 5 adults aged 18 or older had a mental illness
    • Percentage of adults with serious mental illness in the past year: 4.8% aged 18-25, 4.9% aged 26-49, 3.1% aged 50 & older
  • Major depressive episode
    • Over 1 in 10 adolescents (11.4%) had a major depressive episode in the past year
  • Suicide
    • In 2014, 9.4 million adults aged 18 or older thought seriously about killing themselves, including 2.7 million who made suicide plans, and 1.1 million who made a nonfatal suicide attempt
  • Treatment
    • In 2014, of the 43.6 million adults ages 18 or older with a mental illness, only about 44.7 percent (19.4 million) adults received mental health services in the past year
    • Top reasons for receiving mental health care in youth aged 12 to 17, in the past year:
      • 56.5% depressed
      • 29.1% suicidal
      • 29.0% afraid/tense

Subject Terms:

teenagers young adults mental health

Monitoring the Future 2015 Survey Results (Dec 2015)

Source:

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Data:

Monitoring the Future (12th Grade Survey), 2015, Monitoring the Future (8th and 10th Grade Survey), 2015

Description:

  • Monitoring the Future (MTF) is an annual survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th graders conducted by researchers at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, under a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, part of the National Institutes of Health. Since 1975, the survey has measured drug, alcohol, and cigarette use and related attitudes in 12th graders nationwide. Eighth and 10th graders were added to the survey in 1991.
  • Overall, 44,892 students from 382 public and private schools participated in the 2015 survey.
  • First figure: Last Two Decades of Alcohol, Cigarette, and Illicit Drug Use*
    *Past-month use
    • This graphic illustrates past-month use of alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders from 1995 through 2015.
    • In 2015, past-month use in each category was:
      • Alcohol
        12th graders: 35.3%
        10th graders: 21.5%
        8th graders: 9.7%
      • Cigarettes
        12th graders: 11.4%
        10th graders: 6.3%
        8th graders: 3.6%
      • Illicit Drugs
        12th graders: 23.6%
        10th graders: 16.5%
        8th graders: 8.1%
  • Second figure: Teens are more likely to use e-cigarettes than cigarettes.*
    * Past-month use
    • 8th grade
      Cigarettes: 3.6%
      e-Cigarettes: 9.5%
    • 10th grade
      Cigarettes: 6.3%
      e-Cigarettes: 14.0%
    • 12th grade
      Cigarettes: 11.4%
      e-Cigarettes: 16.2%
  • 64.7 percent of 12th graders reported vaporizing "just flavoring" in their last e-cigarette; some didn't know what they inhaled. E-cigs are unregulated so flavored liquid might actually contain nicotine.
    • Flavoring: 64.7%
      Nicotine: 22.2%
      Marijuana or hash oil: 6.1%
      Don't know: 6.3%
  • Third figure: 68.1 percent of high school seniors do not view regular marijuana smoking as harmful, but 71 percent say they disapprove of regular marijuana smoking.
  • Fourth figure: Prescription/Over-the-Counter (OTC) vs. Illicit Drugs*
    *The percentage of 12 graders who have used these drugs in the past year
  • Despite the ongoing opioid overdose epidemic, past-year use of opioids other than heroin has decreased significantly each year over the past 5 years among the nation's teens. Heroin use has also decreased over the past 5 years and is at the lowest rate since the MTF survey began.
  • Fifth figure: Students report lowest rates since start of the survey. Across all grades, past-year use of inhalants, heroin, methamphetamine, alcohol, cigarettes, and synthetic cannabinoids are at their lowest by many measures.
    • This list shows the percentage of 12th graders who have used these drugs in the past year.
      • Prescription/OTC
        Amphetamines - 7.7%
        Adderall - 7.5%
        Opioids other than Heroin - 5.4%
        Tranquilizers - 4.7%
        Cough Medicine - 4.6%
        Vicodin - 4.4%
        OxyContin - 3.7%
        Sedatives - 3.6%
        Ritalin - 2.0%
      • Illicit Drugs
        Marijuana/Hashish - 34.9%
        Synthetic Marijuana - 5.2%
        Hallucinogens - 4.2%
        MDMA (Ecstasy) - 3.6%
        Cocaine (any form) - 2.5%
        Inhalants - 1.9%
        Salvia - 1.9%

Subject Terms:

teenagers drug abuse alcohol nicotine medication abuse marijuana

Drugged Driving (Jul 2015)

Source:

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Data:

National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series, Monitoring the Future (MTF)

Description:

  • Top Right Figure: In 2009, 1 in 3 drivers killed in car crashes tested positive for drugs1
  • Top Left Figure: More than thirty-one million people drove after drug or alcohol use in 2013. The highest rate was among 18- to 25-year-olds2. Impaired driving in the past year is shown on a bar chart. Two percent of 12−17 year olds, 20% of 18−25 year olds, and 12% of those 26 or older drove under the influence of illicit drugs or alcohol in the past year.
  • Middle Figure: Driving after marijuana use is more common than driving after alcohol use. College and high-school seniors who drove or rode with a driver after alcohol or marijuana use. Among college students who used in the past month, nearly 1 in 3 drove after marijuana use and nearly 1 in 2 rode with a driver who had been using marijuana3. Among high-school seniors, in the past 2 weeks, 1 in 8 drove after marijuana use and 1 in 5 rode with a driver who had been using marijuana4. The bar chart shows that 7% of college students drove after drinking alcohol and 31% drove after using marijuana; while 16% rode with a driver who had been drinking alcohol and 45% rode with a driver who used marijuana. Among high-school seniors, 9% drove after drinking alcohol and 12% drove after using marijuana; while 15% rode with a driver who had been drinking alcohol and 20% rode with a driver who used marijuana.
  • Bottom Figure: High-school seniors who smoke marijuana are two times more likely to receive a ticket and 65% more likely to get into a car crash than those who don't smoke.
  • Bottom Text:
    • Develop Social Strategies
      • Offer to be a designated driver
      • Have the designated driver take all car keys
      • Avoid driving to parties where drugs and alcohol are present
      • Talk to friends about the risks of drugged driving

Subject Terms:

drug abuse alcohol teenagers young adults

Drug and Alcohol Use - A Significant Risk Factor for HIV (Apr 2015)

Source:

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Data:

National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series

Description:

  • A third of the 1.2 million Americans with HIV currently use drugs or binge on alcohol. Many people are unaware that the increased risk of HIV infection among substance users can result from BOTH the sharing of contaminated injection equipment as well as impaired judgment that can lead to risky sexual behavior and HIV transmission. This is why substance abuse treatment can play an important role in preventing the spread of HIV.
  • Top figure: 1.2 million people in the U.S. are living with HIV, From 2005 to 2009, 1 in 3 persons with HIV was a current drug user or binged on alcohol.
  • Middle figure: Drug and alcohol use are associated with less frequent condom use.
  • Bottom left figure: HIV incidence by transmission, 2010. Sexual contact - 84%, Intravenous Drug User (IDU) - 16%
  • Bottom right figure: 24% of all persons with HIV are in need of substance abuse treatment

Subject Terms:

drug abuse alcohol HIV (Viruses)

Alcohol or illicit drug use among adolescents (2015)

Source:

Healthypeople.gov

Data:

National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series

Description:

Rates of alcohol or illicit drug use in the past 30 days among adolescents aged 12-17 years increase with age. The rate for adolescents aged 16-17 years was more than 7.5 times the rate for adolescents aged 12-13 years.

  • 12-13 years: 3.4%
  • 14-15 years: 11.8%
  • 16-17 years: 26.8%

Subject Terms:

teenagers drug abuse alcohol

Adult binge drinking in past 30 days by marital status (2015)

Source:

Healthypeople.gov

Data:

National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series

Description:

The rate of binge drinking in the past 30 days for adults aged 18 years and over who were never married was more than 2.5 times the rate for adults who were widowed.

  • Never married: 37.7%
  • Divorced or separated: 28.6%
  • Married: 22.5%
  • Widowed: 13.0%

Subject Terms:

drug abuse alcohol binge drinking

Monitoring the Future 2014 Survey Results (Dec 2014)

Source:

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Data:

Monitoring the Future (12th Grade Survey), 2014, Monitoring the Future (8th and 10th Grade Survey), 2014

Description:

  • Monitoring the Future is an annual survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th-graders conducted by researchers at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, under a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, part of the National Institutes of Health. Since 1975, the survey has measured drug, alcohol, and cigarette use and related attitudes in 12th-graders nationwide. Eighth and 10th graders were added to the survey in 1991. Overall, 41,551 students from 377 public and private schools participated in the 2014 survey.
  • First figure: Last Two Decades of Alcohol, Cigarette, and Illicit Drug Use*
    *Past 30 day use.
    This graphic illustrates past 30 day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders from 1994 through 2014. Alcohol and cigarette use have generally decreased over the last two decades. Illicit drug use declined in the early 2000s, increased in 2011, but has remained steady or decreased somewhat in more recent years.
    • In 2014, past 30 day use in each category was:
      • Alcohol
        12th graders: 37.4%
        10th graders: 23.5%
        8th graders: 9.0%
      • Cigarettes
        12th graders: 13.6%
        10th graders: 7.2%
        8th graders: 4.0%
      • Illicit Drugs
        12th graders: 23.7%
        10th graders: 18.5%
        8th graders: 8.3%
  • Second figure: Teens are more likely to use e-cigarettes than cigarettes.
    * Past month use
    • 8th grade
      Cigarettes: 4.0%
      e-Cigarettes: 8.7%
    • 10th grade
      Cigarettes: 7.2%
      e-Cigarettes: 16.2%
    • 12th grade
      Cigarettes: 13.6%
      e-Cigarettes: 17.1%
  • Only 14.2% of 12th graders view e-cigarette use as harmful, which is less than 5 students in the average class.
  • Third figure: Almost two-thirds (64%) of high school seniors do not view regular marijuana use as harmful compared to just over one-third (35%) 20 years ago. Marijuana use has remained relatively stable among high school students over the past few years. 56.7% of high school seniors say they disapprove of occasional marijuana smoking.
  • Fourth figure: Prescription/Over-the-Counter vs. Illicit Drugs
    After marijuana, prescription and over-the-counter medications account for most of the top drugs abused by 12th graders in the past year.
    • This list shows the percentage of 12th graders who have used the following drugs in the past year.
      • Prescription
        Adderall - 6.8%
        Vicodin - 4.8%
        Tranquilizers - 4.7%
        Cold Medicines - 4.1%
        OxyContin - 3.3%
        Ritalin - 1.8%
      • Illicit Drugs
        Marijuana - 35.1%
        K2/Spice ("synthetic marijuana"): 5.8%
        MDMA/Ecstasy: 3.6%
        Cocaine: 2.6%
        LSD: 2.5%
  • Fifth figure: Cigarette smoking and binge drinking are down over the last decade. The number of students who disapprove of regular smoking and binge drinking increased in 2014, and 8th and 10th graders report that cigarettes and alcohol are becoming harder to get.

Subject Terms:

teenagers drug abuse alcohol nicotine medication abuse marijuana

Marijuana Use & Educational Outcomes (Nov 2014)

Source:

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Data:

National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series, Monitoring the Future (MTF)

Description:

  • Studies show that marijuana interferes with attention, motivation, memory, and learning. Students who use marijuana regularly tend to get lower grades and are more likely to drop out of high school than those who don't use. Those who use it regularly may be functioning at a reduced intellectual level most or all of the time.
  • Figure 1: Most marijuana use begins in adolescence. 78% of the 2.4 million people who began using in the last year were aged 12 to 20.
  • Figure 2: As perception of harm decreases…teen marijuana use increases.
  • Figure 3: Every day, 3,287 teens use marijuana for the first time.
  • Figure 4: The teen brain is still developing and it is especially vulnerable to drug use. Regular heavy marijuana use by teens can lead to an IQ drop of up to 8 points.
  • Figure 5: Heavy marijuana use by teens is linked to:
    • Educational outcomes
      • Lower grades and exam scores
      • Less likely to enroll in college
      • Less likely to graduate from high school or college
    • Life outcomes
      • Lower satisfaction with life
      • More likely to earn a lower income
      • More likely to be unemployed

Subject Terms:

drug abuse marijuana teenagers young adults

Abuse of Prescription Pain Medications Risks Heroin Use (Jan 2014)

Source:

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Data:

National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series, Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) Series

Description:

  • In 2010 almost 1 in 20 adolescents and adults - 12 million people - use prescription pain medication when it was not prescribed for them or only for the feeling it caused. While many believe these drugs are not dangerous because they can be prescribed by a doctor, abuse often leads to dependence. And eventually, for some, pain medication abuse leads to heroin.
  • 1 in 15 people who take non-medical prescription pain relievers will try heroin within 10 years.
  • Figure 1: Number of people who abused or were dependent on pain medications and percentage of them that use heroin
    • 2004: 5%, or 1.4 million
    • 2010: 14%, or 1.9 million
      • Figure 2: Heroin users are 3 times as likely to be dependent
    • 14% of non-medical prescription pain reliever users are dependent
    • 54% of heroin users are dependent
  • Figure 3: Heroin emergency room admissions are increasing
    • 2005: 170,000 or fewer admissions due to heroin
    • 2008: 200,000 or fewer admissions due to heroin
    • 2011: 260,000 or fewer admissions due to heroin

Subject Terms:

drug abuse medication abuse opioids

Monitoring the Future 2013 Survey Results (Jan 2014)

Source:

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Data:

Monitoring the Future (12th Grade Survey), 2013 , Monitoring the Future (8th and 10th Grade Survey), 2013

Description:

  • Top figure: Monitoring the Future is an annual survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th-graders conducted by researchers at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, under a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, part of the National Institutes of Health. Since 1975, the survey has measured drug, alcohol, and cigarette use and related attitudes in 12th-graders nationwide. Eighth and 10th graders were added to the survey in 1991. Overall, 41,675 students from 389 public and private schools participated in the 2013 survey.
  • Second figure: Last Two Decades of Alcohol, Cigarette, and Illicit Drug Use*
    *Past 30 day use.
    This graphic illustrates past 30 day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders from 1993 through 2013. In general, alcohol and cigarette use has decreased, and illicit drug use, which declined in the late 1990s and early 2000s, has been increasing in recent years. In 2013, past 30 day use in each category was:
    • Alcohol
      • 12th graders: 39.2%
        10th graders: 25.7%
        8th graders: 10.2%
    • Cigarettes
      • 12th graders: 16.3%
        10th graders: 9.1%
        8th graders: 4.5%
    • Illicit Drugs
      • 12th graders: 25.5%
        10th graders: 19.4%
        8th graders: 8.5%
  • Third figure (left): Marijuana: As Perceived Harm Drops, Use Goes Up
    * Past-year use in 12th graders.
    • Three points in time are shown-1993, 2003, 2013- for marijuana use and the perception of risk (saw great risk in smoking marijuana occasionally) among 12th graders.
    • 1993: Using: 26.0%
      Perception of risk: 72.5% saw great risk in smoking marijuana occasionally
    • 2003: Using: 34.9
      Perception of risk: 54.9% saw great risk in smoking marijuana occasionally
    • 2013: Using: 36.4%
      Perception of risk: 39.5% saw great risk in smoking marijuana occasionally
  • Third figure (right):
    36.4% equates to about 11 students in the average class.
  • Fourth figure:
    60% of high school seniors do not view regular marijuana use as harmful, which is nearly double from 20 years ago. The potency of marijuana, as measured by THC content, has steadily increased over the last few years, which means that daily use of today's marijuana may have greater health consequences than use of marijuana from 10 to 20 years ago.
  • Fifth figure: Prescription/Over-the-Counter vs. Illicit Drugs
    After marijuana, prescription and over-the-counter medications account for most of the top drugs abused by 12th graders in the past year.
  • This list shows the percentage of 12th graders who have used the following drugs in the past year.
    • Prescription
      Adderall - 7.4%
      Vicodin - 5.3%
      Cold medicines - 5.0%
      Tranquilizers - 4.6%
      OxyContin - 3.6%
      Ritalin - 2.3%
    • Illicit Drugs
      Marijuana - 36.4%
      K2/Spice: 7.9%
      MDMA/Ecstasy: 4.0%
      Salvia: 3.4%
      Powder cocaine: 2.6%
  • Bottom figure: Abuse of Some Synthetic Drugs Is Down. These are substances that are chemically similar to and/or mimic the effects of illicit drugs. This year, 7.9% of high school seniors reported past-year use of K2/Spice (sometimes called synthetic marijuana), down from last year's number of 11.3%. Past-year use of the substances called "bath salts" was low for all three grades - at or below 1%.

Subject Terms:

teenagers drug abuse alcohol nicotine medication abuse marijuana

Substance Use & Mental Illness in U.S. Adults (18+)

Source:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Data:

National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series

Description:

From the 2014 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH)

Behavioral Health (substance use and mental health) issues affect millions in the United States each year.

  • Substance Use in the U.S.
    • Nearly 1 in 12 adults had a substance Use Disorder (SUD) in the past year
      • That’s 20.2 million adults who have SUD
    • In the past month, 1 in 4 U.S. adults engaged in binge drinking
      • That’s 59.4 million adults
    • In the past month, 1 in 10 U.S. adults used illicit drugs
      • That’s 24.6 million adults
  • Mental Health in the U.S.
    • Nearly 1 in 5 U.S. adults had Any Mental Illness (AMI) in the past year
      • That’s 43.6 million adults with AMI
      • Including 9.8 million adults with Serious Mental Illness (SMI)
    • 7.9 million adults had both SUD and AMI
      • Co-Occurring Behavioral Health Disorders in the U.S.
  • Any Mental Illness (AMI) is defined as individuals having any mental, behavior, or emotional disorder in the past year that met DSM-IV criteria (excluding developmental and substance use disorders).
  • Serious Mental Illness (SMI) is defined as adults with any mental, behavior, or emotional disorder that substantially interfered with or linked one or more major life activities
  • Substance Use Disorder (SUD): Individuals with alcohol or illicit drug dependence or abuse are defined as having SUD. The questions used to measure dependence and abuse are based on criteria in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV).

Subject Terms:

drug abuse drug addiction mental health

Mothers Make a Difference

Source:

Open Data Flint, ICPSR

Data:

Flint Adolescent Study

Description:

  • 77% of ninth graders said their biological mother was the most important person in raising them
    • According to a sample of ninth graders in Flint, Michigan

Subject Terms:

teenagers

Protect your unborn baby. Don’t drink alcohol when you’re pregnant.

Source:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Data:

National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series

Description:

Description:

  • 1 in 5 pregnant women report drinking alcohol during early pregnancy
    • There is no proven safe amount of alcohol to drink during pregnancy. Drinking alcohol while pregnant may put your baby at risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD).
  • Effects of FASD can include:
    • Physical impairments
    • Learning disabilities
    • Behavioral symptoms
  • FASD is 100% preventable. Stop and think. If you’re pregnant or could be pregnant, don’t drink.
  • Learn more. Visit the SAMHSA FASD Center for Excellence at FASTcenter.SAMHSA.gov

Subject Terms:

alcohol drug abuse

It's Never Too Early to Start Talking about Underage Drinking

Source:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Data:

Monitoring the Future (MTF)

Description:

Panel 1:
  • 10% of 9- to 10-year-olds have already started drinking.
  • More than 20% of underage drinkers begin drinking before age 13.
Panel 2:
  • 92% of the alcohol consumed by 12- to 14-year-olds is in the form of binge drinking.
  • More than 90% of high-school seniors say that it is easy or very easy to get alcohol.
Panel 3:
  • Parents, you have the power to help prevent underage drinking by talking to your children early and often about the dangers of alcohol. Prepare for one of the most important conversations you may ever have with SAMHSA's "Talk. They Hear You." Mobile Application, available for download on the App Store, Google Play, and the Windows Store. Learn more at http://www.underagedrinking.samhsa.gov.

Subject Terms:

alcohol teenagers young adults

Heroin Use has INCREASED Among Most Demographic Groups

Source:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Data:

National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2002-2013

Description:

  • Figure 1 shows the annual average rate of heroin use (per 1,000 people in each demographic group) for the combined years 2002 to 2004 and 2011 to 2013, and shows the percent increase between those time periods.
    • By sex:
      • Male: 2.4 from 2002-2004; 3.6 from 2011-2013. That represents a 50% change.
      • Female: 0.8 from 2002-2004; 1.6 from 2011-2013. That represents a 100% change.
    • By age:
      • 12-17: 1.8 from 2002-2004; 1.6 from 2011-2013.
      • 18-25: 3.5 from 2002-2004; 7.3 from 2011-2013. That represents a 109% change.
      • 26 or older: 1.2 from 2002-2004; 1.9 from 2011-2013. That represents a 58% change.
    • By race/ethnicity:
      • Non-Hispanic white: 1.8 from 2002-2004; 3 from 2011-2013. That represents a 114% change.
      • Other: 2 from 2002-2004; 1.7 from 2011-2013.
    • By annual household income:
      • Less than $20,000: 3.4 from 2002-2004; 5.5 from 2011-2013. That represents a 62% change.
      • $20,000-$49,999: 1.3 from 2002-2004; 2.3 from 2011-2013. That represents a 77% change.
      • $50,000 or more: 1 from 2002-2004; 1.6 from 2011-2013. That represents a 60% change.
    • By health insurance coverage:
      • None: 4.2 from 2002-2004; 6.7 from 2011-2013. That represents a 60% change.
      • Medicaid: 4.3 from 2002-2004; 4.7 from 2011-2013.
      • Private/other: 0.8 from 2002-2004; 1.3 from 2011-2013. That represents a 63% change
  • Figure 2: Heroin Addiction and Overdose Deaths Are Climbing. Graph illustrates a 286% increase in Heroin-related overdose deaths from 2002-2013.

Subject Terms:

drug abuse opioids

Heroin Use is Part of a Larger Substance Abuse Problem

Source:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Data:

National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) 2011-2013

Description:

  • Heroin use is part of a larger substance abuse problem.
  • Nearly all people who used heroin also used at least 1 other drug. Most used at least 3 other drugs.
  • Heroin is a highly addictive opioid drug with a high risk of overdose and death for users.
  • People who are addicted to…
    • Alcoholare 2 times more likely to become addicted to heroin.
    • Marijuanaare 3 times more likely to become addicted to heroin.
    • Cocaineare 15 times more likely to become addicted to heroin.
    • Prescription opioid painkillersare 40 times more likely to become addicted to heroin.

Subject Terms:

drug addiction drug abuse opioids marijuana

Facts in Focus: Veterans and Substance Abuse Treatment

Source:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Data:

Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS) 2013

Description

  • In 2014 there were over 23 million veterans in the U.S. 1 in 14 had a substance use disorder.
  • 62,000 veteran treatment admissions occurred in 2013
  • Prior to 1961, 3% of veterans had a substance use disorder. From 1961-1975, 5% did; from 1975-1990, 7% did, from 1990 to 2001, 9% did; and after 2001, 15% of veterans had a substance use disorder.
  • Primary substance of abuse: For veteran treatment admissions, alcohol was the #1 problem, much higher than for non-veteran admissions.
    • 65% of veteran treatment admissions were due to alcohol, compared to 37% of non-veteran admissions.
    • 11% of veteran treatment admissions were due to heroin, compared to 21% of non-veteran admissions.
    • 6% of veteran treatment admissions were due to marijuana, compared to 13% of non-veteran admissions.

Subject Terms:

drug abuse alcohol drug addiction alcoholism

Teens Mix Prescription Opioids with Other Substances (Apr 2013)

Source:

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Data:

Monitoring the Future (MTF)

Description:

  • Abusing prescription opioid pain relievers is a major problem among young people, and a new study shows users are combining those drugs with other substances. In data from the annual Monitoring the Future survey for the years 2002-2006, 1 out of 8 high school seniors reported having used prescription opioids non-medically; 7 out of 10 nonmedical users reported combining prescription opioids with at least one other substance in the past year. Marijuana and alcohol were the most common (58.5% and 52.1%, respectively), followed by cocaine, tranquilizers, and amphetamines (10.6%, 10.3%, and 9.5%). Teens who mix prescription opioids with other drugs are four times as likely as non-users to report frequently getting drunk and are eight times as likely to be marijuana users. Twenty-four percent of teens who take prescription opioids non-medically say they usually or always combine it with marijuana. Opioids are dangerous when taken other than as prescribed, and combining with other drugs compounds the risks. The new research findings highlight the importance of addressing combined drug use in interventions to prevent substance abuse in young people.
  • Top Graph: Seven out of ten teen nonmedical users combine opioids with other substances. Past year frequency of co-ingestion of prescription opioids and other drugs among nonmedical users of prescription opioids. Co-ingestion with marijuana was reported by 58.5%, with alcohol by 52.1%, with cocaine by 10.6%, with tranquilizers by 10.3%, and with amphetamines by 9.5% of teens.
  • Bottom Graph: Bar chart showing percent of teens that usually or always combine Rx opioids with marijuana (24 percent) or alcohol (15 percent).

Subject Terms:

teenagers drug abuse opioids medication abuse

Synthetic Marijuana Lands Thousands of Young People in the ER, Especially Young Males (Feb 2013)

Source:

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Data:

Monitoring the Future (MTF), Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) Series

Description:

  • Since bursting on the scene a few years ago, synthetic marijuana (MJ)-often called "Spice" or "K2"-has become the second most popular illegal drug among American teenagers, after MJ. It is especially popular among teenage boys. Sometimes touted as a "natural," "safe," and (until recently) legal alternative to pot, this very un-natural class of designer chemicals has shown itself to be a dangerous threat. Thousands of teens and young adults, mostly young males, are ending up in emergency rooms with severe symptoms that may include vomiting, racing heartbeat, elevated blood pressure, seizures, or hallucinations.
  • Top graphic (male, female symbols): How Many Teens Are Using Synthetic MJ? By gender, 14% of male and 8% of female high school seniors abused synthetic marijuana.
    • In 2012, 11% of American high school seniors used synthetic marijuana in the past year.
      • Bottom graphic (male, female silhouettes): 11,406 ER Visits In 2010 Were Associated with Synthetic MJ.
    • 75% were among adolescents and young adults ages 12-29
    • 22.5% of these visits involved females, and 77.5% involved males

Subject Terms:

teenagers young adults drug abuse marijuana synthetic marijuana

Know the Facts about Underage Binge Drinking

Source:

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration

Data:

National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series

Description:

Underage drinkers tend to drink less often than adults, but they drink more heavily when they do drink. On average, underage drinkers consume 5 drinks per occasion, 5 times a month.

When asked about the last time they drank:

  • 23.1% of underage drinkers reported having 1 drink
  • 18.1% reported having 2 drinks
  • 24.3% reported having 3 or 4 drinks
  • 24% reported having 5 to 8 drinks
  • 10.4% reported having 9 or more drinks

The sooner you talk to your kids about alcohol, the greater chance you have of influencing their decisions. Practice for one of the most important conversations you may ever have with SAMHSA’s “Talk. They Hear You.” Mobile Application, available for download on the App Store, Google Play, and the Windows Store.

Learn more at http://www.underagedrinking.samhsa.gov.

Subject Terms:

teenagers young adults alcohol opioids binge drinking

Most Dangerous Drug Combinations

Source:

DrugAbuse.com

Data:

Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) Series

Description:

Combining drugs is a dangerous game with potentially lethal results. When substances are taken together, the resulting interaction may be unpredictable and possibly hazardous.

From enhancing the respective highs to counteracting the subjective effects that would otherwise signal a stopping point, thus leading to increased dosing, combining drugs is always a risky practice. And it’s not hard to see why.

At a fundamental level, the more intoxicating substances a person ingests, the higher their risk of serious health complications.

So, what are the most dangerous drug duos?

  • Alcohol and cocaine
    • Emergency room visits: 173,799 visits in 2011 – nearly 30% of all multi-drug ER visits that year.
    • Opposing effects: Alcohol is a depressant, while cocaine is a stimulant.
    • New toxin: Alcohol + cocaine produces cocaethylene, a powerful and potentially toxic metabolite.
    • Changes in heart rate: When used in combination, alcohol and cocaine can dramatically increase heart rate.
    • Cardiovascular dangers: Drinking with cocaine increases cocaine blood concentration by up to 30%, raising the risk of serious cardiovascular complications.
    • Other problems: Alcohol’s negative impact on learning, psychomotor skills, and driving is increased with cocaine use.
  • Alcohol and benzodiazepines
    • Emergency room visits: 123,572 ER visits in 2011 – more than 20% of all multi-drug ER visits that year.
    • Delayed metabolization: Drinking prolongs the amount of time it takes to metabolize the benzodiazepine.
    • Additive effects: Alcohol enhances the sedative impact of benzos, and vice versa, resulting in increased intoxication.
    • Deadly impact: Both alcohol and benzodiazepines affect the activity of the brain chemical GABA, which controls vital life functions like breathing and heart rate. The combination of drugs can fatally depress the heart and/or breathing rate.
  • Alcohol and opioids
    • Emergency room visits: 103,730 ER visits in 2011 – more than 17% of all multi-drug ER visits that year.
    • Additive effects: Intoxication is heightened when both substances are taken.
    • Slowed elimination: When both drugs are used, elimination of the drugs is slowed and intoxication is prolonged.
    • Deadly impact: Both alcohol and opioids depress central nervous system activity, dangerously depressing breathing and heart rate.
  • Cocaine and heroin
    • Opposing effects: Cocaine enhances central nervous system activity, whereas heroin depresses it.
    • Overdose risk: Taken together (sometimes referred to as a “speedball”), the drugs may dull the user’s awareness of the effects of each, resulting in higher dosing and serious risk of overdose.
    • Addictive power: Some studies support the fact that heroin + cocaine is more addictive and destructive than either drug on its own.
    • Lethal risk: The effects of cocaine wear off faster than the effects of heroin. As the effects of cocaine wear off but those of heroin persist, respiratory depression and resulting anoxic brain damage or even death may occur.
  • Alcohol and caffeine: High adolescent risk!
    • Cocaine-like effects: Alcohol + caffeine in adolescents can elicit physical and neurological signs similar to those seen with cocaine use.
    • Brain changes: Lasting brain changes may develop that persist into adulthood, potentially heightening the likelihood of cocaine and other drug use later in life.
    • Future addiction: Adolescents that repeatedly consume alcohol and caffeine together may be more likely to develop substance abuse habits as adults.

Subject Terms:

drug abuse alcohol opioids teenagers

Monitoring the Future 2012 Survey Results (Dec 2012)

Source:

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Data:

Monitoring the Future (12th Grade Survey), 2013 , Monitoring the Future (8th and 10th Grade Survey), 2013

Description:

  • Monitoring the Future is an annual survey of 8th, 10th, and 12th-graders conducted by researchers at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, under a grant from the National Institute on Drug Abuse, part of the National Institutes of Health. Since 1975, the survey has measured drug, alcohol, and cigarette use and related attitudes in 12th-graders nationwide. Eighth and 10th graders were added to the survey in 1991. Overall, 45,449 students from 395 public and private schools participated in the 2012 survey.
  • Top figure: Last Two Decades of Alcohol, Cigarette, and Illicit Drug Use*
    *Past 30 day use.
    This graphic illustrates past 30 day alcohol, cigarette, and illicit drug use among 8th, 10th, and 12th graders from 1992 through 2012. In general, alcohol and cigarette use has decreased, and illicit drug use, which declined in the late 1990s and early 2000s, has been increasing in recent years. In 2012, past 30 day use in each category was:
    • Alcohol
      12th graders: 41.5%
      10th graders: 27.6%
      8th graders: 11.0%
    • Cigarettes
      12th graders: 17.1%
      10th graders: 10.8%
      8th graders: 4.9%
    • Illicit Drugs
      12th graders: 25.2%
      10th graders: 18.6%
      8th graders: 7.7%
  • Second figure: Marijuana Use among 12th Graders* vs. Perceived Risk
    *Past year use.
    • Three points in time are shown-2008, 2010, and 2012- for marijuana use and the perception of risk (saw great risk in smoking marijuana occasionally) among 12th graders.
      • 2008
        Using - 32.4%
        Perception of risk - 25.8% saw great risk in smoking marijuana occasionally
      • 2010
        Using - 34.8%
        Perception of risk* - 24.5% saw great risk in smoking marijuana occasionally
      • 2012
        Using- 36.4%
        Perception of risk - 20.6% saw great risk in smoking marijuana occasionally
  • Third Figure:
    36.4% equates to about 11 students in the average class.
  • Fourth figure: Use & Lose
    A study released earlier this year showed that people who used marijuana heavily in their teens and continued through adulthood showed a significant drop in IQ between the ages of 13 and 38-an average of 8 points for those who met criteria for marijuana dependence. Those who never used marijuana showed no declines in IQ.
  • Fifth figure: Prescription/Over-the-Counter vs. Illicit Drugs
    After marijuana, prescription and over-the-counter medications account for most of the top drugs abused by 12th graders in the past year.
    • This list shows the percentage of 12th graders who have used the following drugs in the past year.
      • Prescription
        Adderall - 7.6%
        Vicodin - 7.5%
        Cold medicines - 5.6%
        Tranquilizers - 5.3%
        OxyContin - 4.3%
        Ritalin - 2.6%
        Methaqualone/Quaaludes - 0.4%
      • Illicit Drugs
        Marijuana - 36.4%
        Powder Cocaine - 2.7%
        Crack - 1.2%
        Methamphetamine - 1.1%
        Heroin - 0.6%
  • Bottom figure: What Are "Bath Salts"?
    "Bath salts" are an emerging class of drugs containing one or more synthetic stimulants, which people use to get high by swallowing, snorting, or injecting. Because these drugs are relatively new, much is still unknown about how these substances affect the brain and body. They have been linked to an alarming surge in visits to emergency departments and poison control centers due to cardiac and psychiatric symptoms. Concerns about the use of "bath salts" prompted its inclusion in the survey for the first time in 2012. 1.3% of 12th-graders reported past year use.

Subject Terms:

teenagers drug abuse alcohol nicotine medication abuse marijuana

Prescription Drug Abuse: Young People at Risk (Jun 2012)

Source:

National Institute on Drug Abuse

Data:

Monitoring the Future (MTF), National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series

Description:

  • Top Graph: Past Year Drug Abuse among High School Seniors Graph. After marijuana, prescription and over-the-counter medications account for most of the past-year use of commonly abused drugs among high school seniors. Data for past-year use of prescription and over-the-counter medicines include the following: Vicodin (8%), Adderall (6.5%), Salvia (5.9%), Tranquilizers (5.6%), Cough Medicine (5.3%), OxyContin (4.9%), Sedatives (4/3%), and Ritalin (2.6%), a combined total of 37.2%. Data for past-year use of illicit drugs includes the following: Marijuana/Hashish (36.4%), Synthetic Marijuana (11.4%), Salvia (5.9%), MDMA (Ecstasy 5.3%), Hallucinogens (5.2%), Inhalants (3.2%), and Cocaine (any form, 2.9 %).
  • Bottom Left Image. About 1 in 9 youth or 11.4 percent of young people aged 12 to 25 used prescription drugs non-medically within the past year. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2010)
  • Bottom Right Graphic. Twenty-five percent of those who began abusing prescription drugs at age 13 or younger met clinical criteria for addiction sometime in their life. (National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2010)

Subject Terms:

teenagers young adults drug abuse medication abuse opioids

Addiction Statistics

Source:

National Council for Behavioral Health

Data:

National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services, 2010 (N-SSATS)

Description:

  • Addiction Is A Disease: addiction is a disease just as diabetes and cancer are diseases. It is not a weakness. People of all ages, classes, and ethnic backgrounds can get an addiction.
  • It Changes The Brain: “Drug addiction is a chronic disease; drugs change the brain. Physically change it. And these changes are very long lasting, and persist for a long period of time after the person stops taking the drug.” – Nora D. Volkow, MD, Director, National Institute on Drug Abuse
  • Figure 1: The Disease
    • Drug Addiction is a brain disease because the abuse of drugs leads to changes in the structure and function of the brain.
    • Dopamine is a neurotransmitter present in regions of the brain that control movement, emotion, motivation, and feelings of pleasure. The overstimulation of this system, which normally responds to natural behaviors that are linked to survival (eating, spending time with loved ones, etc.), produces euphoric effects in response to the drugs. This reaction sets in motion a pattern that ‘teaches’ people to repeat the behavior of abusing drugs.
      • Structure and function:
        • Movement
        • Emotion
        • Pleasure
        • Appetite
        • Family
        • Work
  • Figure 2: The Stages
    • There are three stages from first use to addiction. Drug use easily moves to addiction because the brain functions are altered.
      • Harmful use: A pattern of psychoactive substance use that is causing damage to health. The damage may be physical or mental.
      • Abuse: User loses focus on daily activities, use can become secretive, thinks solely about drugs.
      • Dependence: The search for a drug dominates an individual’s life.
  • Addiction Connection – body & brain
    • 6 million (8.9%) Americans aged 12 or older use illicit drugs like marijuana/hashish, cocaine (including crack), heroin, hallucinogens, inhalants, or prescription-type psychotherapeutics used non-medically.
    • More than half of Americans aged 12 or older drink alcohol (51.8%). This is 13.1 million people.
    • 7% drink heavily (16.9 million people)
    • Most adult binge and heavy alcohol users are employed
      • Among 56.6 million adult binge drinkers, 42.3 million (74%) were employed either full or part time.
      • Among 16.5 million heavy drinkers, 12.2 million (74%) are employed.
  • It’s Widespread
    • 1 million persons aged 12 or older needed treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol use problem (9.1%). But only 2.6 million (11.2%) of those who need treatment get it.
    • The societal costs of addiction are substantial
      • Obesity: $147 billion
      • Smoking: $157 billion
      • Diabetes: $174 billion
      • Addiction: $193 billion
      • Heart disease: $316 billion
  • Stages of Change – People with drug and alcohol problems may not want to change. The person could be in any of the following stages:
    • Pre-contemplation: the person sees no need to change.
    • Contemplation: The person has thought of the pros and cons of their substance use but is not sure about changing.
    • Preparation: The person is ready to take action to change.
    • Action: The person is attempting to change and avoiding situations that might trigger substance use.
    • Maintenance: The person has changed and is working to prevent a relapse.
    • Relapse: The person may relapse once or several times before changing their pattern.
  • Addiction is a disease just like cancer, diabetes, heart disease, multiple sclerosis…
  • Do I have an addiction?
    • Boston University School of Public Health’s website provides online tests to gauge drug use and advice about cutting down or getting professional help. drugscreening.org.
  • Treatment works. There are 13,339 addiction treatment facilities in the U.S. Go to findtreatment.samhsa.gov to find one near you. Or call 1-800-662-HELP.
  • Professionals can help
    • A variety of health professionals can help people with a substance use disorder. They include:
      • Primary care physicians
      • Addiction specialists
      • Mental health professionals
      • Peer recovery support staff
    • There are always ways to help yourself or your loved one.
      • The Addiction Workbook is a self-help guide that may assist some people in overcoming their alcohol or other drug dependence disorder. http://store.samhsa.gov/product/Addiction-and-the-Family-Healing-and-Recovery/DVD252
      • Responsible drinking: a moderation management approach for problem drinkers with worksheets to assist people who are not addicted to alcohol but wish to curb their use. http://store.samhsa.gov/product/Addiction-and-the-Family-Healing-and-Recovery/DVD252

Subject Terms:

drug addiction drug abuse