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ANES 1988 Time Series Study (ICPSR 9196)

Alternate Title:   American National Election Study, 1988: Pre- and Post-Election Survey

Principal Investigator(s): Miller, Warren E., University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Center for Political Studies; University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. American National Election Studies


This study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1952. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. In addition to the standard or core content items, new topics include evaluations of the presidential primary candidates, respondent's primary vote, the budget deficit, health insurance, foreign policy, equal rights for women, the drug problem, the Reagan presidency, recall of the 1984 presidential vote, parental party identification, evaluation of Bush and Dukakis on the issues of environment and crime, the death penalty, and new system support and political efficacy items. The file also contains post-election vote validation and election administration survey data as well as data collected in 1991 to revalidate the 1988 respondents in order to assess the reliability of the vote validation process.

Series: American National Election Study (ANES) Series

Access Notes

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DS1:  ANES 1988 Time Series Study - Download All Files (29.303 MB)
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Study Description


Miller, Warren E., and University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. American National Election Studies. ANES 1988 Time Series Study. ICPSR09196-v4. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2015-11-10.

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Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • National Science Foundation (SOC77-08885 and SES-8341310)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    Bush, George H.W., candidates, capital punishment, congressional elections, crime, domestic policy, drug abuse, Dukakis, Michael, economic conditions, environmental policy, federal budget deficit, foreign policy, government performance, health insurance, national elections, political affiliation, political attitudes, political campaigns, political efficacy, political issues, political participation, presidential elections, primaries, public approval, public opinion, public policy, Reagan Administration (1981-1989), social networks, trust in government, voter expectations, voter history, voting behavior, womens rights

Geographic Coverage:    United States

Time Period:   

  • 1988

Date of Collection:   

  • 1988--1989

Universe:    All United States citizens of voting age on or before November 8, 1988, residing in housing units other than on military reservations in the 48 coterminous states.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

Two forms were used in both the pre- and post-election surveys so that a maximum amount of content could be included. For both the pre- and post-election surveys, half the sample was assigned to Form A, the other half to Form B. In particular, the lengthy section containing Reagan retrospective evaluation items was split between the two waves and the two forms in order not to make either the pre- or post-election instrument unacceptably long, and to study the effects of post-election media analysis of the presidency. The other major use of the two forms was to conduct an experiment in survey response.


Sample:    National multistage area probability sample.

Mode of Data Collection:    face-to-face interview

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.


Original ICPSR Release:   1989-04-25

Version History:

  • 2015-11-10 The study metadata was updated.
  • 2000-02-01 The data for this study are now available in SAS transport and SPSS export formats in addition to the ASCII data file. Variables in the dataset have been renumbered to the following format: 2-digit (or 2-character) year prefix + 4 digits + [optional] 1-character suffix. Dataset ID and version variables have also been added. Additionally, the 1991 Vote Revalidation data have been merged with the main data file, and the codebook and SAS and SPSS data definition statements have been replaced. Also, the data collection instrument is now provided as a PDF file. Several files are no longer being released with this collection: the frequencies, the CPS Nonresponse "Bias" file, the CPS Pre-Election Call Record File, and the CPS Post-Election Call Record File.

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