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ANES 1956 Time Series Study (ICPSR 7214)

Version Date: Sep 22, 2016 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Angus Campbell, University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center; Philip Converse, University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. Survey Research Center


Version V4

American National Election Study, 1956

This study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1948. The election studies are designed to collect data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on questions of public policy, and participation in political life. The questionnaires contained both closed and open-ended questions covering a wide range of topics. The study inquired about general political attitudes as well as the attitudes and behaviors pertinent to the 1956 presidential election. Each respondent was interviewed both before and after the election date. In the pre-election survey, respondents were asked about their attitudes toward political parties, candidates, and other specific issues, as well as personal data and some political history. The post-election interview focused on the actual vote and reasons for the vote. It also obtained further personal data and asked non-political attitudinal questions (Form C) of a sub-sample of 579 respondents.

Campbell, Angus, and Converse, Philip. ANES 1956 Time Series Study. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-09-22.

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Rockefeller Foundation


Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
1956-09 -- 1957-01
1956-09-17 -- 1956-11-05, 1956-11-07 -- 1957-01-19

The 1956 Election Study also served as the first wave of a 3-wave panel study; the other two waves are represented by the ANES 1958 Time Series Study (ICPSR 7215) and the ANES 1960 Time Series Study (ICPSR 7216).

For further information please see the ANES Data Center Web site.

The individuals interviewed were a representative cross-section of persons of voting age living in private households in the United States. The 12 largest metropolitan areas of the United States were drawn with certainty to represent themselves. The rest of the country was divided into 54 strata. From each stratum a primary sampling unit consisting of a county or group of counties was drawn with probability proportional to size. The selection procedure within these 66 primary sampling units ultimately yielded a sample of private households within which respondents were designated for interview by an objective procedure of selection that allowed no substitutions.

Time Series: Discrete

United States citizens 18 years of age and older living in private households.

survey data

The response rate was 85 percent. The final dataset includes 1762 cases. The reduction from the original sample of 2475 includes expected losses in interviewing and another 200 respondents who were interviewed only once and hence were not included in the final dataset.


2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Campbell, Angus, and Philip Converse. ANES 1956 Time Series Study. ICPSR07214-v4. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-09-22.

2016-09-22 The SPSS, SAS, and Stata setup files as well as the SPSS and Stata system files and the SAS transport file were updated. A tab-delimited data file, and an R data file were added to the collection. The codebook was converted to PDF, and its content was updated. Interviewer instructions for the post-election wave were added to the data collection instrument.

2015-11-10 The study metadata was updated.

1999-12-14 The data are now available in SAS transport and SPSS export formats, in addition to the ASCII data file. Variables in this dataset have been renumbered to the following format: 2-digit (or 2-character) prefix + 4 digits + [optional] 1-character suffix. Dataset ID and version variables also have been added. In addition, SAS and SPSS data definition statements have been created, data collection instruments have been added to the collection as a PDF file, and the codebook has been replaced.

1984-05-08 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

  • The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. Please see version history for more details.
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