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American Identity and Representation Survey, 2012 (ICPSR 36410)

Principal Investigator(s): Schildkraut, Deborah, Tufts University


This survey was designed to investigate whether having psychological connections to particular groups (ex: racial, ethnic, and national origin groups) and perceptions of discrimination lead to alienation from the structure and operation of representative democracy in the United States. The data allow for comparative ethnic analyses of people's views regarding the representative-constituent relationship and of the conditions under which group identifications and perceptions of discrimination matter.

The survey includes oversamples of Black, Latino, and Asian respondents. A Spanish version of the survey was available. Demographic information retrieved about respondents include age, race/ethnicity, gender, education (highest degree received), employment status, marital status, religion, household size and income. In addition, ancestry was assessed with the question, "From what countries or parts of the world did your ancestors come?" Respondents also reported United States citizenship status, primary home language, and nationality. Variables focusing on respondent perceived representation in the United States include political ideology and political party affiliation.

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


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Study Description


Schildkraut, Deborah. American Identity and Representation Survey, 2012. ICPSR36410-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-07-22.

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Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    African Americans, Asian Americans, ethnic discrimination, family background, Hispanic or Latino Americans, identity, immigrants, national identity, party identification, political awareness, political ideologies, political representation, religion, voter history, White Americans

Geographic Coverage:    United States

Time Period:   

  • 2012

Date of Collection:   

  • 2012-08-22--2012-08-27
  • 2012-10-09--2012-10-23

Unit of Observation:    Individual

Universe:    Non-institutionalized adults age 18 and over residing in the United States.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

DOV stands for Data-only variable.

Variables beginning with DOV represent the result of merging of the respective source variable while trying to address any missing data from the source variable.


Sample:    GfK sampled households from its KnowledgePanel, a probability-based web panel designed to be representative of the United States. KnowledgePanel members are recruited through national random samples, originally by telephone and now almost entirely by postal mail. To qualify for the main survey, a KnowledgePanel member must be over 18 years old. For this survey, four nationally representative samples of United States adults (18 and older) in four race/ethnicity groups (Whites, African American/Black, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian) were selected. More sampling information can be found in the ICPSR-generated codebook (Appendix: Sampling Information).

Time Method:    Cross-sectional


A post-stratification process is used to adjust for any survey non-response as well as any non-coverage or under- and over-sampling resulting from the study-specific sample design. For this study respondents were weighted to benchmarks of non-institutionalized, civilian population age 18+ within each of the race/ethnicity groups sampled.

After this final post-stratification adjustment, the distribution of the calculated weights are examined to identify and, if necessary, trim outliers at the extreme upper and lower tails of the weight distribution. The post-stratified and trimmed weights are then scaled to the sum of the total sample size of all eligible respondents (weight1) and to respondents within each race ethnicity group (weight2). More weighting information can be found in the weighting section in the documentation.

Mode of Data Collection:    web-based survey

Response Rates:    57 percent

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   2016-07-22

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