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American National Election Study, 1990: Senate Election Study (ICPSR 9549)

Principal Investigator(s): Miller, Warren E.; Kinder, Donald R.; Rosenstone, Steven J.; National Election Studies


This data collection, focusing on the 1990 Senate elections, is part of a planned three-part series (1988, 1990, 1992) of Senate studies. Over the course of the three elections, voters in each of the 50 states will be interviewed, and data will be gathered on citizen evaluations of all senators at each stage of their six-year election cycles. In this collection, as in the 1988 Senate Study, contextual data for all 50 states have been merged with the survey data. The survey data facilitate the comparison of House of Representatives and Senate races through the use of questions that generally parallel those questions used in election studies since 1978 concerning respondents' interaction with and evaluation of candidates for the House of Representatives. The 50-state survey design also allows for the comparison of respondents' perceptions and evaluations of senators who are up for re-election with those in the second or fourth years of their terms. Topics covered include respondent's recall and like/dislike of House and Senate candidates, issues discussed in the campaigns, contact with House and Senate candidates/incumbents, respondent's opinion of the proper roles for senators and representatives, a limited set of issue questions, liberal/conservative self-placement, party identification, media exposure, and demographic information. Contextual data presented include election returns for the Senate primary and general elections, voting indices for the years 1983-1990, information about the Senate campaign such as election outcome predictions, campaign pollster used, spending patterns, and demographic, geographic, and economic data for the state. Derived measures also are included that reorganize the House of Representatives and Senate variables by party of candidate and incumbency/challenger status of candidate, and, for Senate variables only, by proximity to next election, along with a number of analytic variables intended to make analyses more convenient (e.g., Senate class number and whether the respondent voted for the incumbent).

Series: American National Election Study (ANES) Series

Access Notes

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Merged Survey and Contextual Data - Download All Files (30.846 MB)

Study Description


Miller, Warren E., Donald R. Kinder, Steven J. Rosenstone, and National Election Studies. American National Election Study, 1990: Senate Election Study. ICPSR09549-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1991.

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This study was funded by:

  • National Science Foundation (SES-9009379)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    campaign issues, candidates, congressional elections, congressional elections (US Senate), domestic policy, economic conditions, foreign policy, government performance, national elections, political affiliation, political attitudes, political campaigns, political efficacy, political issues, political participation, presidential elections, public approval, public opinion, trust in government, voter expectations, voter history, voting behavior

Geographic Coverage:    United States

Time Period:   

  • 1990

Date of Collection:   

  • 1990-11-07--1990-12-20

Universe:    All United States citizens of voting age on or before November 6, 1990, residing in households with telephones in the 50 states.

Data Type(s):    aggregate data, survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The 1990 contextual data were taken in large part from the 1988 contextual data, which were originally collected for the Board of Overseers by the Contextual Data Committee, chaired by Gary Jacobson and Raymond Wolfinger. Many variables have been updated for the 1990 study (e.g., election returns, age of candidates, campaign spending, and economic variables), and certain variables for which information could not be found or was not available at the time of release (e.g., 1990 AFL-CIO ratings and campaign manager) have been padded with missing data. Data from the 1988 study have been revised and made available as part of the AMERICAN NATIONAL ELECTION STUDY: POOLED SENATE ELECTION STUDY, 1988-1990 (ICPSR 9580).


Sample:    Dual-frame design telephone sample with approximately half of the sample selected from a frame of listed telephone numbers and half generated using a two-stage random digit dialing procedure.

Mode of Data Collection:    telephone interview

Data Source:

Published and unpublished aggregate data sources.


Original ICPSR Release:   1992-02-03

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