Systematic Social Observation

Systematic Social Observation abstract and data files

Physical Disorder

Social Disorder

Physical Decay

Commercial Building Security

Alcohol/Tobacco Advertising

Bars/Liquor Stores


Raudenbush, Stephen W., and Robert J. Sampson. "Ecometrics: Toward a Science of Assessing Ecological Settings, with Application to the Systematic Social Observation of Neighborhoods," Sociological Methodology, Vol. 29 (1999): 1-41.

Sampson, Robert J., and Stephen W. Raudenbush. "Seeing Disorder: Neighborhood Stigma and the Social Construction of 'Broken Windows,'" Social Psychology Quarterly, Vol. 67, 4 (2004): 319-342.

Sampson, Robert J., and Stephen W. Raudenbush. "Systematic Social Observation of Public Spaces: A New Look at Disorder in Urban Neighborhoods," The American Journal of Sociology, Vol. 105, 3 (November 1999): 603-651.