The Community Vulnerability and Responses to Drug-User-Related HIV/AIDS, 1990-2013 [96 Metropolitan Statistical Areas, United States] (ICPSR 36575)

Published: Aug 8, 2017

Principal Investigator(s):
Samuel R. Friedman, National Development & Research Institute, Inc.

Version V1


The Community Vulnerability and Responses to Drug-User-Related HIV/AIDS, 1990-2013 [96 Metropolitan Statistical Areas, United States] study (CVAR) was a research study of why large United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) vary over time in their vulnerability to HIV/AIDS among drug users and in MSA responses to HIV/AIDS. This collection contains estimates of HIV prevalence among people who injected drugs (PWID) and among sub-populations of PWID. This collection is comprised of ten datasets with differing amounts of variables and provides trend data that describe the following:

  • Epidemiologic outcomes including population prevalence of PWIDs and Non-injecting drug users (NIDUs), and particularly their prevalence among youth; and, among PWIDs, HIV prevalence, late-diagnosis HIV cases, and AIDS incidence and mortality.
  • Implementation of evidence-based drug-related interventions including drug abuse treatment, syringe exchange, HIV counseling and testing.
  • Implementation of non-evidence-based drug-related interventions including incarceration and arrests of drug users.

The collection contains data on the MSA sub-populations including Black, Hispanic, White and "other" race categories. In addition, some statistics are presented in age range categories such as ages 15-29, 30-64 and 15-64.

Friedman, Samuel R. The Community Vulnerability and Responses to Drug-User-Related HIV/AIDS, 1990-2013 [96 Metropolitan Statistical Areas, United States]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2017-08-08.

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United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (5 R01 DA013336 15)

North Carolina Milwaukee Indiana Ocean (New Jersey) Fort Worth Cincinnati Austin Monmouth (New Jersey) Utah San Jose Rock Hill Gastonia San Diego Columbus (Ohio) Syracuse Springfield (Massachusetts) North Little Rock (Arkansas) Arizona Las Vegas Springfield (Ohio) Arlington Boston San Bernardino Providence Seattle Kentucky St. Petersburg Bethlehem Niagara Falls (New York) Nashville California Florida Delaware Hunterdon (New Jersey) Boca Raton (Florida) Troy Knoxville Mississippi Fresno New Haven Sarasota Illinois Newark Georgia Little Rock Virginia Maryland Norfolk Virginia Beach Suffolk County (New York) United States Oklahoma Grand Rapids Louisville Waukesha (Wisconsin) Arkansas South Carolina Washington Albany (New York) Wichita Mesa (Arizona) Carlisle (Pennsylvania) Fall River Massachusetts Missouri Winston-Salem Holland (Michigan) New Orleans Scranton Salt Lake City Denver Harrisburg St. Louis Dallas Nevada Schenectady Allentown Raleigh San Antonio Muskegon St. Paul Clearwater Hawaii Passaic Rochester (New York) Ventura (California) Birmingham Michigan Lebanon Baltimore New Mexico Orlando Louisiana Toledo Middlesex (New Jersey) Philadelphia Riverside Akron Oklahoma City Greensboro Detroit Charlotte High Point Tucson Albuquerque Everett Oakland Bakersfield New York City Somerset (New Jersey) Petersburg Memphis Ogden Jacksonville Buffalo Pittsburgh Nassau (New York) Orange County (California) Sacramento El Paso Greenville Kansas Meriden Pennsylvania Tulsa Chapel Hill (North Carolina) West Palm Beach Iowa Texas Lorain Portland (Oregon) Hazleton Tampa Durham San Marcos (Texas) Indianapolis Richmond Oregon Warwick Bergen (New Jersey) Newport News Ann Arbor Alabama Cleveland Dayton Nebraska Omaha Warren West Virginia Elyria Tacoma Minneapolis Youngstown Atlanta Honolulu Phoenix Bradenton Wilmington (Delaware) Gary Rhode Island District of Columbia Vancouver (Washington) Lodi (California) Chicago Fort Lauderdale Wilkes-Barre Minnesota Kansas City (Missouri) Bellevue New York (state) Anderson New Jersey Miami San Francisco Charleston (South Carolina) Jersey City Long Beach Spartanburg (South Carolina) New Hampshire Easton Ohio Los Angeles Hartford Stockton Houston

Metropolitan Statistical Area

1990 -- 2013

Some of the data used to contruct the datasets for this study are available through NAHDAP. See the following links for more information on the N-SSATS and TEDS studies:

The MSA variable is present in all 10 datasets and represents the Metropolitan Statistical Area Federal Information Processing Standards (Fips) code. This variable can be used to link data between datasets. However, be advised that MSA is not a unique identifier within all datasets. Therefore, users should take care to transform the necessary variables before merging datasets.

This study was conducted to help understand the forces that shape metropolitan area HIV/AIDS epidemics and prevention programs and provide data to inform future policy making decision regarding HIV/AIDS. The study data are intended to provide information on several relationships including:

  • How epidemiologic need and macro-social contexts such as economic changes, social integration, and residential segregation by race affect interventions.
  • How interventions and macro-social contexts together affect epidemiologic contexts.
  • How some interventions (e.g., arrests, incarceration) affect others (e.g., syringe exchange coverage).
  • How some epidemiologic outcomes (e.g., prevalence of young IDUs) affect others (e.g., HIV prevalence).

Longitudinal trend data on 96 Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States were compiled from secondary sources to provide information on epidemiologic factors, evidence based interventions, and non-evidence based intervention that contribute to changes in community vulnerability to drug-user-related HIV/AIDS. The principal investigators used these data to create novel variables.

Some of the secondary data sources used include:

For more information please see the following articles and the data documentation.

Tempalski, B., Pouget, E.R., Cleland, C.M., Brady, J.E., Cooper, H.L.F., Hall, H.I., Lansky, A., West, B.S., Friedman, S.R. Trends in the population prevalence of people who inject drugs in US Metropolitan Areas 1992-2007. PLoS ONE 2013. Vol. 8. No. 6. e64789.

Chatterjee, S., Tempalski, B., Pouget, E.R., Cooper, H.L.F., Cleland, C.M., Friedman, S.R. Changes in the Prevalence of Injection Drug Use Among Adolescents and Young Adults in Large U.S. Metropolitan Areas. AIDS and Behavior July 2011. Vol. 15, No.7, pp.1570-1578. DOI: 10.1007/s10461-011-9992-0

For information on the Metropolitan Statistical Area sampling, see the following article.

Tempalski, B., Lieb, S., Cleland, C.M., Cooper, H., Brady, J.E., Friedman, S.R. HIV prevalence rates among injection drug users in 96 large US metropolitan areas, (1992-2002). Journal of Urban Health 2009. Vol. 86, pp. 132-54.


Metropolitan Statistical Areas in the United States

Metropolitan Statistical Area

administrative records data

aggregate data

census/enumeration data

See the variable description by dataset below:

  • DS1: Contains demographic variables including total and percentage of the population by race and age categories over the period from 1990-2013.
  • DS2: Contains the annual number of treatment episodes where admission documentation indicate that any substance was injected intravenously or intramuscularly from 1992-2004. These data include admissions by client attribute. Further detail is provided on types of admissions.
  • DS3: Contains the number and rates at of people who injected drugs (PWID) each year between 1993-2002.
  • DS4: Contains treatment coverage rates from 2000-2008 for alcohol and substance abuse.
  • DS5: Contains the number of injecting drug users (IDUs) and non-injecting drug users (NIDUs) by race over the period from 1992-2007.
  • DS6: Contains number of people with injecting drug use (PWID) by sub-population annually between 1992-2007.
  • DS7: Contains the injecting drug user rate among young people between 15-29 years old over the period between 1992-2002.
  • DS8: Contains data on drug related arrest rates, Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) counts, and the number of murders by year between 1991-2009.
  • DS9: Contains estimate of HIV prevalence rates among people who inject drugs each year from 1992-2002.
  • DS10: Contains poisoning and drug mortality rates by year between 1993-2007.

Not Applicable




2017-08-08 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.


This study is maintained and distributed by the National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program (NAHDAP). NAHDAP is supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).