Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study 2000-2013 (ICPSR 36282)

Version Date: Feb 3, 2016 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Jean Forster, University of Minnesota. School of Public Health


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The Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study is a population-based, longitudinal study that enrolled 3636 youth from Minnesota and 605 youth from comparison states age 12 to 16 years in 2000-2001. Participants were surveyed by telephone semi-annually about their tobacco-related attitudes and behaviors. The goals of the study were to evaluate the effects of the Minnesota Youth Tobacco Prevention Initiative and its shutdown on youth smoking patterns, and to better define the patterns of development of tobacco use in adolescents. A multilevel sample was constructed representing individuals, local jurisdictions and the entire state, and data were collected to characterize each of these levels. Major topics covered by the survey are cigarette use, nicotine dependence, alcohol use and dependence, cigarette access, quitting smoking, use of other tobacco products and marijuana, parent smoking habits, tobacco marketing, emotions and stress perceptions, and perceptions and opinions of smoke-free laws, tobacco companies, and tobacco age restrictions. Demographic information includes age, education, ethnicity, gender, marital status, and income level.

Forster, Jean. Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study 2000-2013. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-02-03. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR36282.v1

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United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Cancer Institute (R01-CA086191), ClearWay Minnesota (RC-2007-0018)

Geo-Political Unit (GPU)

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
2000-10 -- 2013-03
2000-10 -- 2013-03

The primary aim of the MACC study was to evaluate local tobacco control programs in Minnesota, and the secondary aim was to better define the patterns of tobacco use in young adults and to evaluate the effects of tobacco control programs on these patterns.

The MACC Study employs a multilevel design, including a cohort sequential design of five ages at the individual level where individuals (adolescents) are surveyed every six months. These individuals are nested in GPUs (geo-political units) and there are longitudinal observations at the GPU level every six months as well. Finally, individuals and GPUs were randomly assigned a specific month within the six-month window for each observation; thus each month constitutes an observation in a time series design for the state of Minnesota.

A combination of probability and quota sampling methods (to assure equal age distribution) was used to establish the cohort. The goal was to recruit 3600 participants from Minnesota. These participants included 12 of each age from 12 to 16 years old from each of the 60 Minnesota GPUs. Recruitment was conducted by telephone by Clearwater Research, Inc., using modified random digit dial (MOD1) sampling to identify households with at least one teenager in the target age range within the target GPU. Within households, respondents were selected at random from among age quota cells that were still open for that GPU. Parent permission was obtained by telephone followed by permission from the chosen teenager before interviewing. In addition a comparison cohort (n=600) consisting of approximately 180 12-16 year olds from metropolitan Kansas City KS and MO, 240 from the rest of Kansas, 60 each from North and South Dakota and 60 from the upper peninsula of Michigan were recruited into the study. These states were chosen because as of 2000 they had devoted few resources from the Master Settlement Agreement to tobacco control and because they roughly corresponded to the demographics of Minnesota. Adolescents were interviewed by phone every six months, on the six-month anniversary of their previous interview.

Longitudinal: Cohort / Event-based

Young adults aged 12-16 in Minnesota, Kansas, Missouri, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Michigan.


Data were collected by Clearwater Research Inc., of Boise, Idaho, using telephone survey procedures.

survey data

The MACC Cumulative Response Rates by Round are as follows:

Baseline: 100%

Round 2: 96.68%

Round 3: 34.57%

Round 4: 93.53%

Round 5: 91.79%

Round 6: 89.66%

Round 8: 82.75%

Round 9: 81.99%

Round 10: 79.89%

Round 11: 80.04%

Round 12: 77.51%

Round 13: 73.07%

Round 14: 69.71%

Round 15: 60.47%

Round 17: 60.32%

Round 21: 54.35%

Round 23: 52.86%

Round 25: 50.17%

For additional information about the response rates of the MACC, please see the "Response Rates" bookmark under the Original P.I. Documentation section of the ICPSR codebook.

Common, Previously Validated Scales Present in MACC:

Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) - variables Q1051-Q1055

Fagerstrom Nicotine Dependence Scale (FTND) - variables Q0161-Q0165, and Q0127)

CAGE - variables Q0483A1-Q0483A4

Susceptibility to smoking - variables Q0040, Q0140, Q0050, Q0090, Q0100, and Q0110 (learn more by reading 'An improved surveillance measure for adolescent smoking?' available on JSTOR)


2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Forster, Jean. Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort (MACC) Study 2000-2013. ICPSR36282-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-02-03. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR36282.v1

2016-02-03 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Created online analysis version with question text.

The data are not weighted, and no weight variables are present in the data set.


  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

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