Athletic Involvement Study (of Students in a Northeastern University in the United States), 2006 (ICPSR 33661)

Alternate Title:   AIS, 2006

Principal Investigator(s): Miller, Kathleen, University of Buffalo


The Athletic Involvement Study interviewed 795 students in a large public university in the Northeastern United States to explore how or if participation in sports affects people's health-risk behavior. About a quarter of the sample did not report any participation in a sport during high school or college and no primary sport designation. For those who did identify with a sport there were five predictor areas of interest: (1) scales measuring strength of jock identity; (2) strength of athlete identity; (3) goal orientation in sport; (4) primary sport ratings; and (5) conformity to masculine norms.

Access Notes

  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.


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Study Description


Miller, Kathleen. Athletic Involvement Study (of Students in a Northeastern University in the United States), 2006. ICPSR33661-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2013-04-30.

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This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (DA016581)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    academic achievement, alcohol, athletes, demographic characteristics, energy drinks, mental health, risk assessment, sexual behavior, social identity, sports participation, substance abuse

Time Period:   

  • 2006

Date of Collection:   

  • 2006 (Spring Semester)

Unit of Observation:    individual

Universe:    Undergraduate male and female students age 18 or older, enrolled in introductory level classes at a single large public university in the Northeastern United States.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

To help protect the confidentialty of the students who participated in the study, the following three variables were recoded.

  • AGE: Top-coded at "24 or More"
  • RACE: American Indians / Native Americans were combined with the "Other" category
  • RELIGION: Muslims and Buddhists were combined with the "Other" category
  • ORIENT: Complete suppression of sexual orientation


Study Purpose:   

The two major purposes of this study were to:

  • Develop comprehensive measures of athletic involvement.
  • Examine links among athletic involvement, gender norms, health risks, substance use, and sexual activity.

Study Design:   

Undergraduates enrolled in seven large-section, lower-level Sociology, Communications, and Economics courses at a large university in the northeastern United States were invited to complete a 45-minute anonymous questionnaire. Each participant received $10.00 compensation. In the case of the Communications students, the study also counted for research credit that could be applied toward fulfillment of a course requirement.

Two mechanisms were employed for distribution and collection of questionnaires. Approximately half were administered in a classroom setting, with enrolled students informed in advance that they had the option of skipping the class if they chose not to take part in the study. The remaining participants were recruited with brief in-class announcements inviting them to e-mail the research team to indicate their interest, whereupon they were sent a copy of the questionnaire form via e-mail. Participants then completed the questionnaire independently and returned it to the research team as directed.

Informed consent was secured from all participants and the study protocol was approved by the university's Social and Behavioral Sciences Institutional Review Board.

Time Method:    Cross-sectional

Mode of Data Collection:    self-enumerated questionnaire, on-site questionnaire

Response Rates:    Approximately 1,500 students were invited to participate. A total of 795 students returned completed questionnaires for a response rate of 53 percent.

Presence of Common Scales:   

  • Task and Ego Orientation in Sports Questionnaire (TEOSQ), Duda (1989)
  • Conformity to Masculine Norms Inventory (CMNI), Mahalik et. al (2003)
  • Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D), Radloff (1977)

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Created online analysis version with question text.
  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Restrictions: Users are reminded that these data are to be used solely for statistical analysis and reporting of aggregated information, and not for the investigation of specific individuals or organizations.


Original ICPSR Release:   2013-04-30

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