Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS): Step 'N Out, 2002-2006 [United States] (ICPSR 30221)

Version Date: Jul 27, 2011 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Peter Friedmann, Rhode Island Research Center, Brown University and Lifespan Hospitals


Version V1

Step 'N Out is a research study designed to examine the potential of a new approach to address the re-entry needs of offenders who have substance abuse issues, one which integrates the systems of supervision and treatment. The study is a randomized clinical trial which enrolls subjects who are new to supervision. Those who are in the treatment arm of the study meet with their probation officer weekly for 12 weeks, with every other meeting including a treatment counselor. The PO and counselor have been trained to use motivational interviewing and collaborative behavioral techniques to explore the client's personal issues and triggers that may hamper his/her successful re-entry into the community. The probation officer and counselor work with the client to establish weekly recovery and social goals in the form of a written contract that enables the client to take responsibility for their own actions and decisions. In addition, the variables in this study generally cover topics on drug use and testing; demographics and criminal background; treatment programs and sessions; and finally, relationships between clients and their parole/probation officers.

Friedmann, Peter. Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS): Step ’N Out, 2002-2006 [United States]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2011-07-27.

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United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse


Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
2002 -- 2006

Special Collaborators on this study include the following centers: Connecticut Research Center (Connecticut Department of Mental Health and Addiction Services), Mid-Atlantic Research Center (University of Delaware, Center for Drug and Alcohol Studies), Pacific Coast Research Center (UCLA, Criminal Justice Research Group at Integrated Substance Abuse Programs), and Virginia Commonwealth University.

There are five main aims of the Collaborative Behavioral Management program. The first aim is to negotiate realistic goals and objectives for the period of supervision/treatment. The second aim is to gain better control over clients' behavior by setting clear expectations at the beginning of the intervention and applying consistent, quick, and appropriate consequences (either positive or negative) for evidence that the client is or is not meeting those expectations. The third aim is to "Catch People Doing Things Right." The fourth aim is to instill a sense of procedural justice and decrease the perception that the system is unfair. The fifth aim is to sustain behavior change beyond the period of reinforcement, that is, after the intervention is complete.

Adults in prison and parole systems.

clinical data, experimental data


2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Friedmann, Peter. Criminal Justice Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (CJ-DATS): Step 'N Out, 2002-2006 [United States]. ICPSR30221-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2011-07-27.

2011-07-27 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.


This study is maintained and distributed by the National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program (NAHDAP). NAHDAP is supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH).