Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2002 [United States] (ICPSR 23520)

Published: Aug 10, 2016

Principal Investigator(s):
United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention



Version V1

JRFC 2002

The Juvenile Residential Facility Census (JRFC) collected basic information on facility characteristics, including size, structure, security arrangements, and ownership. It also collected information on the use of bedspace in the facility to indicate whether the facility was experiencing crowding. The JRFC included questions about the type of facility, such as detention center, training school, ranch, or group home. This information was complemented by a series of questions about other residential services provided by the facility, such as independent living, foster care, or other arrangements. In 2002, the JRFC used two modules to collect information on the substance abuse treatment and mental health treatment provided to youth in these facilities. While not evaluating the effectiveness or quality of these services, the JRFC gathered important information about the youth the services were directed toward and how the services were provided. The census indicated the use of screenings or tests conducted to determine counseling, education, health, or substance abuse needs, and also examined prominent issues about conditions of confinement, including the restraint of youth and improper absences from the facility. Congress requires the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to report annually on the number of deaths of juveniles in custody; JRFC collected information on such deaths for the one-year period just prior to the census reference date. The census reference date was the fourth Wednesday in October.

United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Juvenile Residential Facility Census, 2002 [United States]. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-08-10. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR23520.v1

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United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention


Due to the sensitive nature of the data and to protect respondent confidentiality, the data are restricted from general dissemination. They may only be accessed at the ICPSR Data Enclave in Ann Arbor, MI. Users wishing to view these data must complete an Application for Use of the ICPSR Data Enclave (available for download as part of the documentation for this study), and receive permission to analyze the files before traveling to Ann Arbor. More general information about the Enclave may be found at ICPSR's Enclave Data Web site.

2002-10-23 (93.8 percent of responses were based on this reference date)

2002-10-31 -- 2003-04-15 (6.2 percent of responses were based on an alternative reference date)

2002 -- 2003

Additional information about the JRFC and other national juvenile corrections data collections sponsored by OJJDP is available from the National Juvenile Corrections Data Resource Guide.

Individual years of data from the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP) and Juvenile Residential Facility Census (JRFC), a compliment to the CJRP data, are available through enclave access. Users interested in utilizing the enclave data must complete an Application for Use of the ICPSR Data Enclave. Additional data in the CJRP Series, JRFC Series, and the Matched CJRP/JRFC Series will be made available in March 2012 through the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data's Restricted Survey Documentation and Analysis (RSDA) system. Users interested in accessing these data through NACJD's RSDA system must complete a RSDA Data Use Agreement.

The purpose of the Juvenile Residential Facility Census (JRFC) is to provide a detailed understanding of the facilities holding juveniles in custody across the United States. The JRFC offers information about the environments in which youth under 21 are held as part of a multilayered effort by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to describe both the youth placed in residential facilities and the environments of these facilities. The JRFC is a companion effort to the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP), which collects information from the same facilities that meet JRFC inclusion criteria. The JRFC was administered for the first time in 2000 by the United States Bureau of the Census for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP).

The JRFC is designed to provide facility-level information for all facilities meeting certain inclusion criteria on the census reference date (see "Sampling" below). The questionnaire collects information about general facility characteristics; treatment policies, procedures, and services; events and incidents in the past 30 dates; deaths in the past year; and spaces or services shared with other facilities (see "Description of Variables" below).

The JRFC is administered by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Facility representatives receive mail questionnaires shortly before the survey reference date. A small number of facilities meeting census inclusion criteria decline to complete sections of the survey or fail to return the census forms after repeated notification and phone contact from Census Bureau personnel; these facilities are designated non-respondents. Other facilities may be unable to provide all the information necessary to complete the survey. In cases where facilities are unable or unwilling to complete all survey items, the Census Bureau uses complete records to impute missing data.

The inclusion criteria for facilities in the census were: the facility must house persons under the age of 21 who were charged with or adjudicated for an offense, and were present in the facility on the reference date because of that offense. JRFC did not capture data on adult prisons or jails, nor did it include facilities that are used exclusively for mental health or substance abuse treatment or for dependent children.


Juvenile residential facilities in the United States holding at least one juvenile for an offense on the census reference date in 2002.


United States Bureau of the Census questionnaires

census/enumeration data

The 2002 JRFC (n=3,534; 351 variables) collects information on various aspects of residential facilities.

Section 1 of the survey form collects general facility information, including:

  • location (state),
  • facility population disaggregated by age and offense status (total, under 21, 21 or older, assigned a bed because of an offense, assigned a bed for other reasons),
  • physical layout (e.g. presence of separate buildings or separate living/sleeping units),
  • facility type (e.g. detention center, group home/halfway house, runaway and homeless shelter),
  • treatment provided (e.g. mental health treatment, substance abuse treatment),
  • owner and operator sector (private non-profit, for-profit, government) and, for government-owned or -operated facilities, level (tribal, federal, state, county, municipal),
  • security features (e.g. locked internal or external doors or gates), and
  • sleeping arrangements (occupants per sleeping room, number of standard and makeshift beds).

Section 2 describes mental health policies, procedures, and services provided inside or outside the facility.

Section 3 describes substances abuse policies, procedures, and services.

Section 4 of the survey form relates to events in the 30 days prior to the census reference date, including unauthorized departures, transportation to an emergency room, and young persons placed in physical restraints or in isolation.

Section 5 of the survey form gathers information about any deaths in the past year.

Section 6 of the survey form describes space shared with other facilities.

Using the number of in-scope facilities as a base (i.e., able to hold juveniles overnight and held juveniles on the reference date), the JRFC facility response rate was 96 percent in 2002.



2016-08-10 Updated documentation and data files; additional detail added to metadata fields.

2014-01-09 User Guide was updated. Application for Use of the ICPSR Data Enclave was added to the collection.

2012-02-09 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.

  • One or more files in this data collection have special restrictions. Restricted data files are not available for direct download from the website; click on the Restricted Data button to learn more.

  • The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented.
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This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.