Three sample cities (Chicago, Boston, and Washington, DC)
were purposively selected to represent differences in the size,
location, degree of control, and type of organization in police
departments. Within each city, two police precincts (four in
Washington) with high crime rates were selected to represent areas
with different race and class compositions. The selected sites were:
(1) Boston, MA: precincts Dorchester and Roxbury, (2) Chicago, IL:
precincts Fillmore and Town Hall, and (3) Washington, DC: precincts
#6, 10, 13, and 14. Stratified probability samples of police tours of
duty were drawn. Evening and weekend shifts were overrepresented to
maximize the number of encounters observed.
All encounters between citizens and police in major
metropolitan areas of the United States.
field observation and official records