Robberies in Chicago, 1982-1983 (ICPSR 8951)

Version Date: Jan 12, 2006 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Franklin E. Zimring, Unknown; James Zeuhl, Unknown

Version V1

This study investigates the factors and conditions in robbery events that cause victim injury or death. The investigators compare three robbery events: those that resulted in death, those that cause injury, and nonfatal robberies of all types. The events were compared on a variety of demographic variables. The data address the following questions: (1) To what extent are homicides resulting from robbery misclassified as homicides for which motives are undetermined? (2) How often do homicides resulting from robbery involve individuals who do not know each other? (3) Are robberies that involve illicit drugs more likely to result in the death of the victim? (4) To what extent does a weapon used in a robbery affect the probability that a victim will die? (5) To what extent does victim resistance affect the likelihood of victim death? (6) To what extent does robbery lead to physical injury? (7) Do individuals of different races suffer disproportionately from injuries resulting from robbery? (8) Are injuries and homicides resulting from robbery more likely to occur in a residence, commercial establishment, or on the street? (9) Are women or men more likely to be victims of homicide or injury resulting from robbery? (10) To what extent does robbery (with or without a homicide) occur between or within races? (12) How long does it take to solve robbery-related crimes? Major variables characterizing the unit of observation, the robbery event, include: location of the robbery incident, numbers of offenders and victims involved in the incident, victim's and offender's prior arrest and conviction histories, the extent of injury, whether or not drugs were involved in any way, type of weapon used, victim/offender relationship, and the extent of victim resistance.

Zimring, Franklin E., and Zeuhl, James. Robberies in Chicago, 1982-1983. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2006-01-12.

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United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (NIJ 83-IJ-CX-0012), University of Chicago. Law School, University of California-Berkeley. Earl Warren Legal Institute
Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
1982 -- 1983
1982 -- 1983

Parts 1-3 of this dataset are machine-readable text files. There are SAS data definition statements for Part 4 only.

For the sample of robberies resulting in victim injury, the sample was constructed from a screening and referral of the first 30 reports of robbery to the Detective Division each month, where a notation was present that hospital assistance was required for the victim.

Robberies reported to and recorded by the Chicago Police Department.

official records and interviews

event/transaction data, administrative records data, and machine-readable text


2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Zimring, Franklin E., and James Zeuhl. Robberies in Chicago, 1982-1983. ICPSR08951-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1994.

2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 6 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.

2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.

1989-05-04 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.

  • The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented.
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This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.