Violence and Crime in Cross-National Perspective, 1900-1974 (ICPSR 8612)

Principal Investigator(s): Archer, Dane; Gartner, Rosemary


This data collection provides comparative, cross-national, longitudinal data on rates of violent and nonviolent crimes for every country in the world over a period of 74 years. The study was designed to supply both comparative breadth and historical depth. Data were compiled from 110 nations and 44 urban places over periods up to 74 years, 1900-1974. Information is included on murder, rape, robbery, assault, theft, and population.

Access Notes

  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.


DS0:  Study-Level Files
DS1:  Crime File (With Comments) - Download All Files (0.538 MB)
DS2:  Eight Crime File - Download All Files (0.455 MB)
DS3:  Crime File (Data Only) - Download All Files (0.959 MB)
DS4:  Codebook for All Parts - Download All Files (0.998 MB)
DS5:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Crime File (Data Only) - Download All Files (1.037 MB)
SAS    SPSS    Stata    ASCII   
ASCII + SAS Setup    SPSS Setup    Stata Setup   
DS7:  Second FORTRAN Program for Crime File (With Comments) - Download All Files (0.198 MB)

ASCII + SAS Setup   

Study Description


Archer, Dane, and Rosemary Gartner. Violence and Crime in Cross-National Perspective, 1900-1974. ICPSR08612-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1987-02-26.

Persistent URL:

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health (MH-27427)
  • Guggenheim Foundation
  • German Marshall Fund of the United States

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    assault, crime, international crime statistics, murder, rape, robbery, violence

Geographic Coverage:    Africa, Asia, Central America, Europe, Global, Latin America, North America, South America

Time Period:   

  • 1900--1974

Date of Collection:   

  • 1972--1982

Universe:    All countries in the world.

Data Type(s):    aggregate data

Data Collection Notes:

Two FORTRAN command files are supplied and can be used in conjunction with Part 1, Crime File (With Comments), to output crime rates and raw crime figures for each country. Part 3, Crime File (Data Only), contains the data from Part 1 without the non-data comments. The SAS and SPSS data definition statements are only for Part 3. Other than the record layouts and country and city codes, the only documentation provided for all data files is the comment statements from the FORTRAN files. The study title was changed to include the years 1973 and 1974, since records are present in the data for those years.


Data Source:

correspondence with national and metropolitan government sources, annual statistical reports, published annual crime data

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Restrictions: Users are asked to send copies of articles based on the data to: Dane Archer, Stevenson College, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064.


Original ICPSR Release:   1987-02-26

Version History:

  • 2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 6 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.
  • 2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 6 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.
  • 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.

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