Legal Representation Data, 1970 (ICPSR 7540)

Published: Nov 19, 2009 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Stuart S. Nagel; Anthony S. Champagne

Version V2

This data collection contains legal representation information gathered in a 1970 survey of 474 attorneys across the United States, which garnered 221 usable responses. The research objectives included: (1) determining the relationship between the behavior of the attorneys in representing indigent or unpopular clients and the attitudes, specialties, backgrounds, and environments of the attorneys, (2) arriving at some policy recommendations for increasing the representation of indigent and unpopular clients, and (3) analyzing the joint causation phenomenon whereby neither favorable attitudes nor favorable opportunities alone lead to representation of the unpopular, but the combination of both together does so substantially. Survey information gathered includes respondents' attitudes toward: (1) the legal profession, (2) unpopular or indigent clients, (3) sociopolitical issues regarding the poor, and (4) the system of legal representation. Respondents were asked for their experiences when representing unpopular or indigent clients and to give reasons they might not choose to represent such clients. Background information includes characteristics of the respondent's community as well as respondent's race, gender, natality, father's occupation, political party affiliation, political offices held, religious preference, type of practice, and percent of clients from ethnic and racial minorities.

Nagel, Stuart S., and Champagne, Anthony S. Legal Representation Data, 1970. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2009-11-19.

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Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research

The codebook is provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy 1of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.

Random sampling was used (by choosing the last practicing lawyer listed on every tenth page of the alphabetic sections of the 1970 MARTINDALE-HUBBELL LEGAL DIRECTORY). The questionnaire was mailed to 474 attorneys across the country, with 221 returning usable responses, or 51 percent of the sample.

Attorneys in the United States.

self-enumerated questionnaires

survey data



2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Nagel, Stuart S., and Anthony S. Champagne. Legal Representation Data, 1970. ICPSR07540-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2009-11-19.

2009-11-19 SAS, SPSS, and Stata setups have been added to this data collection.

1984-05-03 ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.


  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions.

  • The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. Please see version history for more details.
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This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.