Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities, 1995 (ICPSR 6953)

Principal Investigator(s): United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics


This census is the fifth enumeration of state adult correctional institutions and the second of federal institutions sponsored by the Bureau of Justice Statistics and conducted by the Bureau of the Census. Earlier censuses were completed in 1974 (ICPSR 7811), 1979 (ICPSR 7852), 1984 (ICPSR 8444), and 1990 (ICPSR 9908). Unlike the previous censuses, all respondents in 1995 were sent the same survey form. For each facility, information was provided on physical security, age, functions, capacity, court orders for specific conditions, one-day counts and average populations, race/ethnicity of inmates, inmate work assignments, inmate deaths, special inmate counts, assaults, and incidents caused by inmates.

Series: Census of State and Federal Adult Correctional Facilities Series

Access Notes

  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.


ASCII + SAS Setup    SPSS Setup   
Analyze Online:

Study Description


U.S. Dept. of Justice, Bureau of Justice Statistics. CENSUS OF STATE AND FEDERAL ADULT CORRECTIONAL FACILITIES, 1995. Conducted by U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census. ICPSR ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [producer and distributor], 1998. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06953.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06953.v1

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    census data, correctional facilities (adults), corrections, corrections management, inmate deaths, inmate populations, inmate programs, inmates, jails, prison administration, prison conditions, prison construction, prison overcrowding

Geographic Coverage:    United States

Time Period:   

  • 1995

Date of Collection:   

  • 1995

Universe:    The facility universe was developed from the Census of State and Federal Correctional Facilities. The list was revised using the 1995 American Correctional Association Directory and information obtained from state correctional administrators and the Federal Bureau of Prisons. The census included the following types of state and federal adult correctional facilities: prisons, prison farms, reception, diagnostic and classification centers, road camps, forestry and conservation camps, youthful offender facilities (except in California), vocational training facilities, drug and alcohol treatment facilities, and state-operated local detention facilities in Alaska, Connecticut, Delaware, Hawaii, Rhode Island, and Vermont. Facilities were included in the census if they: (1) were staffed with federal, state, local, or private employees, (2) housed primarily state or federal prisoners, (3) were physically, functionally, and administratively separate from other facilities, and (4) were in operation on June 30, 1995. The census also included 110 private facilities under exclusive contract to state governments and the Federal Bureau of Prisons to house prisoners. In addition, the census included 16 facilities under joint authority, including those owned and staffed by state employees providing services to multiple counties for a fee, facilities co-owned by the state and counties that shared in their operation, and facilities staffed by county employees who were state-certified for correctional administration. Specifically excluded from the census were: (1) privately operated facilities that were not exclusively for state or federal inmates, (2) military facilities, (3) Immigration and Naturalization Service facilities, (4) Bureau of Indian Affairs facilities, (5) facilities operated and administered by local governments, including those housing state prisoners, (6) facilities operated by the U.S. Marshals Service, and (7) hospital wings and wards reserved for state prisoners.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The codebook is provided as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.


Sample:    Data were collected from 125 federally-authorized prisons and 1,375 state-authorized facilities operating on June 30, 1995.

Data Source:

self-enumerated questionnaires

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created online analysis version with question text.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   1998-04-20

Version History:

  • 2003-03-21 Syntactic changes were made in the header of the SPSS data definition statements.

Related Publications



Metadata Exports

If you're looking for collection-level metadata rather than an individual metadata record, please visit our Metadata Records page.

Download Statistics