The project's aims included studying (1) development and persistence of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders and (2) pathways and patterns of risky behaviors. Researchers studied changes in disorders over time (including onset, remission, and recurrence), comorbidity, associated functional impairments, and the risk and protective factors related to these disorders and impairments. The NJP addressed the patterns and sequences of the development of drug use and related variables, focusing on gender differences, racial/ethnic differences, the antecedents of these risky behaviors (risk and protective factors), and how these behaviors are interrelated.
Data from the baseline interview were deposited with the National Addiction and HIV Data Archive Program at the Inter-University Consortium for Political and Social Research (ICPSR). Data from the first follow-up (conducted approximately three years after the baseline) were deposited with ICPSR's National Archive of Criminal Justice Data.
A random subsample of participants was scheduled for a second follow-up interview approximately 3.5 years after their baseline interview (Follow-up 2). Participants were tracked until they were found for an interview, withdrew, or were known to have died. Some participants who were difficult to locate received their follow-up interviews substantially later than the planned interview dates.
Follow-up interviews were conducted face-to-face wherever the participant was living--in the community or in any correctional facility in Illinois--at the time their interview was due. However, community interviews were conducted by telephone if the participant lived more than 2 hours away. Diagnostic modules were administered via pencil and paper interviewing (PAPI) or computer assisted personal interviewing (CAPI). Non-diagnostic modules were administered via PAPI.
Males and females aged 10 to 18 years were randomly sampled at intake into the Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (CCJTDC) from November 1995 through June 1998. The sample was stratified by gender, race/ethnicity (African American, non-Hispanic White, Hispanic, other), age (males only, aged 10 to 13 years or 14 years and older), and legal status (males only, processed as a juvenile or as an adult). There were a total of 13 strata:
- black females
- non-Hispanic white females
- Hispanic females
- black males, 10-13 years old
- non-Hispanic white males, 10-13 years old
- Hispanic males, 10-13 years old
- older black males, processed as adults
- older non-Hispanic white males, processed as adults
- older Hispanic males, processed as adults
- older black males, processed as juveniles
- older non-Hispanic white males, processed as juveniles
- older Hispanic males, processed as juveniles
- other race/ethnicity
Detainees were eligible to be sampled regardless of their psychiatric morbidity, state of drug or alcohol intoxication, or fitness to stand trial. Within each stratum, the project used a random-numbers table to select names from Cook County Juvenile Temporary Detention Center's intake log. The final sampling fractions ranged from 0.018 to 0.689.
Researchers conducted the first follow-up approximately three years after the baseline with the full sample. The second follow-up was conducted approximately 3.5 years after the baseline with a random subsample.
Longitudinal: Panel: Continuous
Male and female juvenile detainees, ages 10 to 18, in the Cook County (IL) Juvenile Temporary Detention Center (CCJTDC) between November 1995 and June 1998. All detainees younger than 17 years are held at CCJTDC, including youths processed as adults (automatic transfers to adult court). Youths may be detained in the CCJTDC until they are 21 years of age if they are being prosecuted for an arrest that occurred when they were younger than 17 years.
The Northwestern Juvenile Project Follow-Up 2 contains 23 parts consisting of the following variables:
- Main (da36629-0001; n=997; 23 variables) includes administrative information (e.g., interview status, location, date) and age at interview.
- Comments (da36629-0002; n=939; 64 variables) includes interviewer observations of how participants managed the interview, including whether participants had any difficulties with particular measures, whether participants seemed to be truthful, and whether the participant exhibited any psychotic symptoms. Interviewers filled out this observational measure following the interview.
- The Child Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale-Youth and Young Adult (CAFAS; da36629-0003; n=940; 37 variables) is a multidimensional measurement of functional impairment that includes scales of role performance, behavior toward others, mood, self-harmful behavior, substance use, and thinking.
- The Child and Adolescent Services Assessment-Modified (CASA) probes various dimensions of mental health and substance abuse service use, including reason for services, type of treatment, frequency and duration of the service, referral sources, pathways to services, and attitudes and barriers to treatment. CASA is broken into five parts. CASA_A (da36629-0004; n=937; 362 variables) describes school services. CASA_B (da36629-0005; n=52; 56 variables) describes non-school services. CASA_C (da36629-0006; n=37; 61 variables) describes services provided in addition to mental health services from CASA A and CASA B. CASA_D (da36629-0007; n=104; 133 variables) describes the referral source for mental health services. CASA_E (da36629-0008; n=171; 127 variables) describes subject's attitudes and barriers to treatment.
- The Child and Family Assessment (CFA; da36629-0009; n=940; 739 variables) includes variables describing residence status, family structure, life events including pregnancy, experiences of homelessness, participation in school and community activities, family functioning assessment (parenting practices, family cohesion and conflict, and family attitudes and beliefs), significant losses, community functioning, quality of life and life events, and future orientation. CFA_GRID (da36629-0010; n=3,491; 43 variables) includes variables related to family structure and financial support.
- The Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS; da36629-0011; n=938; 4 variables) summarizes the interviewer's impression of the lowest level of the participant's functioning at home, in school and/or work, and in other social environments.
- The Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) is a structured interview that assesses psychiatric disorders based on the DSM-IV. DIS_DX (da36629-0012; n=941; 617 variables) includes diagnoses of substance abuse, dependence, and withdrawal. DIS_ITEMS (da36629-0013; n=941; 606 variables) includes items from the interview questionnaire on which DIS_DX diagnoses were based, including household characteristics, health history, substance use, and symptoms related to substance dependence and withdrawal.
- The Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC) is a structured interview of children that assesses psychiatric disorders based on DSM-IV criteria. DISC_DX (da36629-0014; n=938; 255 variables) includes diagnoses of psychiatric disorders, including mania, hypomania, major depression disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and schizophrenia. DISC_ITEMS (da36629-0015; n=938; 701 variables) includes items from the interview questionnaire on which DISC_DX diagnoses were based, including household characteristics, education history, traumatic experiences, and a wide range of symptoms.
- The Risk Behavior Assessment Profile (RBAP) has 6 parts. RBAP (da36629-0016; n=940; 1216 variables) discusses a wide range of behaviors, including drug use, drug sales, sexual activity, knowledge about HIV/AIDS, illegal activities, gun ownership, and gang membership. RBAP_DRUG (da36629-0017; n=983; 104 variables) identifies motives for drug use and sources for acquiring drugs. RBAP_GRID (da36629-0018; n=943; 20 variables) includes follow-up questions related to drug use, HIV, gun ownership, and gang membership. RBAP_IDU (da36629-0019; n=3; 72 variables) contains variables related to injected drug use and quitting drug use. RBAP_INTERVENTION (da36629-0020; n=759; 61 variables) discusses participation in and behavior changes related to HIV/AIDS services. RBAP_SEX (da36629-0021; n=765; 150 variables) discusses sexual behavior and condom use.
- The Kaufman Short Neurological Assessment Procedure (KSNAP; da36629-0022; n=821; 79 variables) includes results and scores for four subtests of cognitive functioning (gestalt closure, number recall, four-letter words, and recall/closure) as well as composite assessment score.
- The Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT; da36629-0023; n=853; 17 variables) includes test results and achievement scores measuring math and reading ability.
By 6 years after their baseline interview, 918 participants had received a follow-up 2 interview. Twenty-four participants received follow-up 2 interviews more than 6 years after their baseline interview. Other reasons for nonresponse at follow-up 2 were: died before the 6-year cut-off (n=11); withdrew from the study (n=13); and could not be located (n=31).
Child Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale-Youth and Young Adult (CAFAS)
Child and Adolescent Services Assessment-Modified (CASA)
Child and Family Assessment (CFA)
Children's Global Assessment Scale (CGAS)
Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS)
Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children (DISC)
Risk Behavior Assessment Profile (RBAP)
Kaufman Short Neurological Assessment Procedure (KSNAP)
Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT)