The purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual model that includes risk and protective factors for financial exploitation of older adults (FE). Researchers had three goals: (1) To examine control factors, risk factors, and protective factors for FE in a correlational approach as a first step, (2) To examine subtypes of risk and elder abuse subtypes, and (3) Model Building and Interactions of risk and resilience variables.
Participants completed the study individually at Scripps College or local senior centers. Eligible older adults from senior centers and retirement communities contacted the project manager to schedule a 2-hour meeting session. During the meeting session, research assistants greeted participants and explained the informed consent prior to data collection. Both older adults and research assistants signed the informed consent when all questions and concerns were addressed. Research assistants then conducted interviews and assisted participants to complete a survey battery. Time to complete the study varied from 70 to 150 minutes, and all participants were given $25 for their participation.
Respondents were recruited from the Greater Los Angeles Area via an existing participant pool, or with flyers distributed to senior centers and retirement communities.
Individuals age 65-90 from the areas surrounding the California cities of Claremont, Pasadena, Montclair, La Verne, and Torrance.
cognitive assessment test
The data file NIJ_Final_dataset_10-11-16.sav (n=216, 297 variables) contains the following:
- 79 items taken from the Older Adult Financial Exploitation Measure (OAFEM)
- 8 items taken from the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADLS)
- 12 items taken from the 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12)
- 20 items taken from the Center for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression Scale (CESD)
- 12 demographic items such as age, gender, and income
- 23 items taken from the Social Network Index (SNI)
- 5 items related to Social Participation
- 20 items related to Social Exchange
- 6 items related to Social Provision
- 6 items related to Social Reception
- 12 items taken from the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL)
- 20 items taken from the UCLA Isolation Scale
- 40 items related to Attachment
- 2 items related to numeracy
- 1 item related to financial literacy
- 1 item taken from the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)
- 1 item taken from the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR)
- 6 items taken from the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS)
- 1 item taken from the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)
- 4 items related to trail making tests
- 12 items taken from the Stroop Task
- 1 score from the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT)
- Older Adult Financial Exploitation Measure (OAFEM)
- Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale (IADLS)
- 12-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12)
- Center for Epidemiologic Studies' Depression Scale (CESD)
- Social Network Index (SNI)
- Social Participation
- Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL)
- UCLA Isolation Scale
- Financial Literacy
- Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)
- MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool for Clinical Research (MacCAT-CR)
- Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS)
- Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE)
- Trail Making Tests A and B
- Stroop Task
- Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT)
The PI was unable to provide the data collection instruments due to copyright issues. Full citations for each instrument used by the project are available in the accompanying documentation.
In addition, several Likert-type scales were used.