assaults on police,
Uniform Crime Reports
Smallest Geographic Unit:
states, counties, cities
Date of Collection:
Unit of Observation:
law enforcement agencies
Law enforcement officers killed or assaulted as reported by law enforcement agencies.
Data Collection Notes:
Starting with the year 1998, each of the four parts of the UCR data collection archived by ICPSR is released as a separate study under its own study number. The Police Employee data for the years 1975-1997 can be found in UNIFORM CRIME REPORTING PROGRAM DATA [UNITED STATES]: 1975-1997 (ICPSR 9028).
UCR Program contributors compile and submit their crime data by one of two means: either directly to the FBI or through their state UCR Programs. State UCR programs frequently impose mandatory reporting requirements which have been effective in increasing both the number of reporting agencies as well as the number and accuracy of each participating agency's reports.
The LEOKA dataset contains information collected through two UCR Program reporting forms: the annual "Law Enforcement Employees Report" and the monthly "Law Enforcement Officers Killed or Assaulted" (LEOKA) report. Together they represent the FBI's effort to produce a comprehensive dataset of assaults on police officers and, more generally, of "police strength" (the amount of resources devoted to policing as measured by the number of persons employed in law enforcement agencies).
The Law Enforcement Employees Report, a form sent to police agencies throughout the country by the FBI once a year, asked for a count of employees on the payroll of each agency as of October 31. The number of full-time law enforcement employees, officers and civilians, was requested by this form. Officers are defined as full-time, sworn personnel with full arrest powers including the chief, sheriff, or other head of the department. Persons performing guard or protection duties, such as school crossing guards, special officers, and merchant police, who were not paid from law enforcement funds were not included. Civilian employees include persons such as clerks, radio dispatchers, parking enforcement personnel, stenographers, mechanics, etc., who were full-time employees of the agency. Employees, both officers and civilians, who were on leave with pay also were included.
Information from the LEOKA report constitutes the second and largest portion of the dataset. For any month in which
felonious or accidental killings and/or nonfatal assaults on
law enforcement officers acting in the line of duty were reported on the UCR Return A form, a LEOKA form was to have been submitted to provide additional information regarding the attack. (See ICPSR 4124, UNIFORM CRIME REPORTING DATA [UNITED STATES]: OFFENSES KNOWN AND CLEARANCES BY ARREST, 2003 for a description of Return A). Monthly variables are coded zero for months in which no assaults occurred.
The LEOKA form gathered data on assaults that resulted in serious injury or in which a weapon was used that could have caused serious injury or death. Other assaults not resulting in injury were included, if they involved more than verbal abuse or minor resistance during the course of an arrest. Details are available on the number and type of patrols and shift assignments, the number of injury and non-injury assaults by type of weapon, and the number of weapon-specific assaults by situation type. These situations include disturbance calls, burglaries, robberies, other arrests attempted, civil disorders, custody of prisoners, suspicious persons, ambushes without warning, mentally deranged persons, traffic pursuits and stops, and all other circumstances. For each of these categories, the number of police assaults cleared by arrest (or other exceptional
means) are also included. The final group of variables are
assault counts by time of occurrence (in two-hour increments, e.g., the number of assaults occurring between 12:01am and 2:00am, 2:01am and 4:00am, and so on).
Mode of Data Collection:
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of
disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major
statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to
these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
Performed consistency checks.
Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.