Identity and Framing Theory, Precursor Activity, and the Radicalization Process Dataset from the American Terrorism Study, 1972-2008 (ICPSR 36112)

Version Date: Dec 19, 2017 View help for published

Principal Investigator(s): View help for Principal Investigator(s)
Brent Smith, University of Arkansas

https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR36112.v1

Version V1

These data are part of NACJD's Fast Track Release and are distributed as they were received from the data depositor. The files have been zipped by NACJD for release, but not checked or processed except for the removal of direct identifiers. Users should refer to the accompanying readme file for a brief description of the files available with this collection and consult the investigator(s) if further information is needed.

This study sought to empirically test one of the most widely cited perspectives relative to radicalization and the growth of social movements - Identity and Framing Theory. Identity and framing perspectives contend that radicalization towards violence can be theorized as a process which entails a journey, typically from a non- or less-radical identity and corresponding orientation, towards a more radical identity and corresponding orientation which enhances the likelihood of employing targeted forms of violence because the prospect of desired change is seen as laying outside the realm of legitimate modes of challenge and expression within the targeted institutional arena. As implied, a key component of the process is the adoption or evolution of a radical identity.

The study collection includes 1 SPSS data file (ATS_NIJ_FRAMING_QUANTITATIVE_DATASET.sav, n=465, 16 variables) and 1 Excel data file (ATS_NIJ_FRAMING_QUALITATIVE_DATASET.xls, n=38, 17 variables).

Smith, Brent. Identity and Framing Theory, Precursor Activity, and the Radicalization Process Dataset from the American Terrorism Study, 1972-2008. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2017-12-19. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR36112.v1

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United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (2012-ZA-BX-0003)

ATS_NIJ_FRAMING_QUALITATIVE_DATASET.xls: state

Access to these data is restricted. Users interested in obtaining these data must complete a Restricted Data Use Agreement, specify the reason for the request, and obtain IRB approval or notice of exemption for their research.

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research
1972 -- 2008
1972 -- 2008

These data are part of NACJD's Fast Track Release and are distributed as they were received from the data depositor. The files have been zipped by NACJD for release, but not checked or processed except for the removal of direct identifiers. Users should refer to the accompanying readme file for a brief description of the files available with this collection and consult the investigator(s) if further information is needed.

The goals of the study were (1) an empirical evaluation of "identity" and "framing" theories relevant to understanding radicalization to violence; (2) an empirical examination and elaboration of radicalization processes as they apply to the mobilization of individuals for engagement in violent direct action. In particular, how components of identity and framing theories are evidenced in the precursor conduct of terrorists; and (3) the development of a more integrated theorized understanding of radicalization to violence.

For data file ATS_NIJ_FRAMING_QUANTITATIVE_DATASET.sav, a total of 465 perpetrators met all inclusion criteria and were used as the primary unit of collection and analysis. These persons were all indicted in federal court for terrorism or terrorism related charges (includes completed, foiled, and failed incidents, weapons charges, material support of terrorism, financial charges, and immigration offenses); were convicted or died prior to trial (during attack or arrest); and had a completed case study where both legal and geospatial variables had been completely coded.

For data file ATS_NIJ_FRAMING_QUALITATIVE_DATASET.xls, court records, trial transcripts, and open source media documents associated with each person and incident were examined to extract qualitative data to assist in informing each proposition and hypothesis.

For data file ATS_NIJ_FRAMING_QUANTITATIVE_DATASET.sav, data collection was completed on 421 terrorism cases involving 1,247 perpetrators from 68 different groups. These individuals were linked to 573 planned or completed terrorism incidents. Researchers recorded 3,944 known pre-incident acts associated with these 573 planned or completed incidents. The precursor acts were also linked to the individuals involved so that demographic and behavioral traits could be included in the analysis. For this project, a total of 465 perpetrators met all inclusion criteria and were used as the primary unit of collection and analysis.

For data file ATS_NIJ_FRAMING_QUALITATIVE_DATASET.xls, court records, trial transcripts, and open source media documents associated with each person and incident were examined to extract qualitative data to assist in informing each proposition and hypothesis.

Longitudinal: Cohort / Event-based

Persons indicted in federal court on terrorism or terrorism related charges and associated terrorist organizations.

ATS_NIJ_FRAMING_QUANTITATIVE_DATASET.sav: individuals, ATS_NIJ_FRAMING_QUALITATIVE_DATASET.xls: terrorist organizations
administrative records data

The data file ATS_NIJ_FRAMING_QUANTITATIVE_DATASET.sav (n=465; 16 variables) contains an ID variable, category of terrorism, the gender, age, and education of the perpetrator, the length in months the perpetrator was a member of a terrorist group, and the rank or role of the perpetrator in the terrorist group. It also includes the numbers of meetings attended by the perpetrator, criminal acts committed by the perpetrator, ancillary activities the perpetrator participated in, preparatory activities the perpetrator participated in, antecedent activities the perpetrator participated in, and completed, failed, or foiled incidents the perpetrator participated in. Additionally, the data file has the total number of counts the perpetrator was charged with, the highest count severity for the most severe count, and a weighted count severity score.

The data file ATS_NIJ_FRAMING_QUALITATIVE_DATASET.xls (n=38; 17 variables) contains an ID variable, radical identity and the primary grievance of any organization, the size of the organization at time of perpetrator's indictment, organization score based on the value in the ORG_SIZE variable, length of time the organization has existed in months, duration of the organization score based on the value in the DURATION variable, inaccessibility of membership as a fuzzy-set variable based on inaccessibility of membership into the organization, diagnostic frame crystallization, prognostic frame crystallization, violence against persons perpetrated by the organization, damage or destruction of property, government or state targets of either violence or property damage, the abbreviation of the state in which the most serious incident associated with the organization took place, year of most serious incident, raw percentage of Republican victory by state in the Presidential primary occurring proximate to the year of the most serious incident, the raw percentage subtracted by total percent votes received by Democratic and non-right wing third parties, and the margin of Republican victory.

Not applicable.

None

2017-12-19

2018-02-15 The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented. The previous citation was:
  • Smith, Brent. Identity and Framing Theory, Precursor Activity, and the Radicalization Process Dataset from the American Terrorism Study, 1972-2008. ICPSR36112-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2017-12-19. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR36112.v1

Data file ATS_NIJ_FRAMING_QUANTITATIVE_DATASET.sav contains the variable COUNT_SEVERITY_WEIGHTED, which is a weighted count severity score calculated by summing the count severity for each count a perpetrator was charged with from all court cases where the perpetrator was indicted.

Notes

  • These data are part of NACJD's Fast Track Release and are distributed as they were received from the data depositor. The files have been zipped by NACJD for release, but not checked or processed except for the removal of direct identifiers. Users should refer to the accompanying readme file for a brief description of the files available with this collection and consult the investigator(s) if further information is needed.

  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.

  • One or more files in this data collection have special restrictions. Restricted data files are not available for direct download from the website; click on the Restricted Data button to learn more.

  • The citation of this study may have changed due to the new version control system that has been implemented.
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This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.